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International Journal of Computer Science and Technology
Vol 6.2 ver – 2 (April to June, 2015)

S.No. Research Topic Paper ID Download
26

Robust Algorithms for Consistent Hashing

Dr. Abdelrahman Elsharif Karrar

Abstract

The study of the partition table is a confirmed grand challenge. In fact, few statisticians would disagree with the evaluation of hierarchical databases, which embodies the appropriate principles of hardware and architecture. In order to surmount this challenge, i concentrate my efforts on proving that RPCs and sensor networks are rarely incompatible.
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IJCST/62/1/A-0469
27

Performance Analysis of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols for VANET Using NS2 Simulation

Ameer Ali, Dr. Latha C.A

Abstract

Vehicle Ad hoc Networks (VANET) emerged as a subset of the Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) application; it is considered to be a significant approach to the ITS (Intelligent Transportation System). VANETs are introduced to assist drivers and improve safety issues and driving comfort, as a step towards constructing a safer, smoother, cleaner and more intelligent environment. At the present time vehicles are equipped with On Board Units (OBU) this enables vehicles to sense situations affecting other vehicles and manage communications. VANET is a new communication paradigm that enables the communication between vehicles moving at high speeds on the roads. This inspired to develop several new applications like, traffic engineering, traffic management, dissemination of emergency information to avoid hazardous ituations and other user applications.802.11p, also known as WAVE, is a standard protocol intended for future traffic systems in order to support safety and commercial non-safety applications for vehicular communication. 802.11p is amended from 802.11a, and both are based on OFDM. The main difference between 802.11a and 802.11p is that 802.11p uses 10 MHz frequency bandwidth (half of bandwidth of 802.11a) in order to make the signal more robust against fading and increase the tolerance. This paper investigate the performance of 802.11p for Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication through real-world experiments using different adhoc routing protocols. We measure throughput and packet losses of 802.11pin urban environments. In addition, the performance of routing protocol with different modulations by varying the number of vehicles to evaluate the feasibility of using rate adaptation for safety V-to-V applications.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0470
28

A Watchdog Security Scheme Against Wormhole Attack in Wireless Sensor Network

Sonam Jain, Prof. Deepak Tomar, Prof. Rachana Kamble

Abstract

The security against insider threats is one of the major key issue in Wireless Sensor Network. Wormhole attack is one among the harmful insider threats that take place within the Wireless Sensor Network. Wormhole attack is a type of attack that works on established path between sender and destination node. When the sender begins data transmission then the wormhole offender can produces an instantaneous link with another such offender, affirmed as tunnel between them. The energy of nodes is also not utilized due to attacker .In this paper we have tendency to propose Watchdog based intrusion detection and further prevention technique against wormhole attack. For detection the routing entry based detection technique is proposed which acquires offender node info like node range, attack time etc. Afterwards to stop wormhole attack victimization the neighbor trust worthy based technique is proposed. The simulation is done through network simulator-2 and the network behavior in attack and prevention case is analyzed. Then the performance of network on the basis of network parameter like output, packet delivery ratio, throughput, routing load etc is measured.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0471
29

Lossless Compression Algorithm for Genome Sequence Based on Reverse Sequencing

Subhrajyoti Mandal, Biswajyoti Kar, Arindam Biswas

Abstract

A lossless compression algorithm is designed for genome sequence based on reversed sequencing. We will present a DNA compression algorithm, based on exact reverse matching that gives the best compression results on standard benchmark DNA sequences. However, searching for all exact reverses in a very long DNA sequence is not a trivial task. This algorithm takes a long time (essentially a quadratic time search or even more) in order to find approximate reverses that are optimal for compression. Simultaneously achieving high speed and best compression ratio remains to be a challenging task. Proposed DNA sequences compression achieves a better compression ratio and runs significantly faster than any existing compression program for benchmark DNA sequences, simultaneously.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0472
30

Performance Analysis of Mobile Node Using Media Independent Handover

Mohammed Waseem Akram, P Vanajakshi

Abstract

For Next-generation wireless networks, to integrate different wireless networks with best efforts leads to a new concept call Vertical Handover. Vertical handover comes into picture when mobile node moves in between different network technologies. Designing intelligent vertical handover concept is a most important challenge for next generation network. Towards this as a first step, IEEE 802.21 working group committee proposed a new set of standard called Media Independent Handover (MIH). The IEEE 802.21 MIH is purely focused on handover easier between different wireless networks in heterogeneous environment no matter what type of medium. In order to simulate MIH standard, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed a addon module works well with ns2 version 2.29. In this investigates the performance of nodeusing IEEE 802.21. Simulated result of vertical handover between Wi-Fi and WiMAX networks using IEEE 802.21 MIH standard. This simulation is carried out using ns2 simulator with NIST’s add-on module for IEEE 802.21 MIH standard. The Performance of IEEE 802.21 MIH standard is analyzed in terms of Average throughput, handover latency, packet drop and end to end delay.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0473
31

A Study of Traffic Redirection Based Congestion Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

Manpreet Kour, Bhisham Sharma, Dr. Trilok C. Aseri

Abstract

Congestion in wireless sensor networks can be controlled either by adjusting the data rate (traffic control), or by providing alternative path for the data packets (resource control). In this paper, we present an overview of resource-based congestion control protocols. Firstly, the basic aspects of congestion control in wireless sensor networks are described. Secondly, a detail of existing resource-based congestion control protocols is presented. Thirdly, the comparison of these protocols is shown on the basis of various parameters. Finally, the conclusion of the paper is provided.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0474
32

Performance Evaluation of AODV, AOMDV and DSR on VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network)

Sheetal Negi, Sudesh Rani

Abstract

With recent development in vehicles, factors like safety, privacy and security are the main issues at roads. VANET (Vehicular ad hoc network) is a network formed among vehicles and roadside units, so that the mentioned factors are maintained. Because of these factors VANET is an emerging technology, but due to high mobility, nodes disconnects from network frequently. So routing protocols are very important and we need to analyze the performance of routing protocols in VANET. This research work is aimed to study the performance of on-demand routing protocols like DSR, AODV and AOMDV on city scenario with the help of ns2 simulation.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0475
33

Study on Software Safety in Safety Critical Computer Systems

K.Jayasri, P.Seetharamaiah

Abstract

Real time computing systems in which the consequences of failure can be very high are termed as safety critical computer systems. Many such systems exist in application areas such as aerospace, defense, transportation and medical devices. Software safety is a composite of many factors. Software for safety-critical systems has to deal with the hazards identified by safety analysis in order to make the system safe, risk-free and fail-safe. To prevent system hazard leaded by software failure, steps insuring software safety must be done. Activities of software safety including safety analyses, safety design and safety evaluation should be deployed surrounding software safety requirements. During software development lifecycle, hazard identification, hazard analysis, testing, and hazard tracking are processed to ensure system safety. This paper examines the driving forces behind the software safety by analyzing various safety related concepts and models like CMM +Safe, for safety critical computer systems.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0476
34

Dynamic Virtual Machine Load Balancing in Cloud Computing

Pushp Lata, Er. Jitender Kumar

Abstract

Cloud computing is a term, which involves virtualization, distributed computing, networking, software and web services. A cloud consists of several elements such as clients, datacenter and distributed servers. It includes fault tolerance, high availability, scalability, flexibility, reduced overhead for users, reduced cost of ownership, on demand services etc.Central to these issues lies the establishment of an effective load balancing algorithm.The load can be CPU load, memory capacity, delay or network load. Load balancing is the process of distributing the load among various nodes of a distributed system to improve both resource utilization and job response time while also avoiding a situation where some of the nodes are heavily loaded while other nodes are idle or doing very little work. Load balancing ensures that all the processor in the system or every node in the network does approximately the equal amount of work at any instant of time.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0477
35

Lean Six Sigma Model To Improve Student Performance

Tannu Vats, Sujata

Abstract

Lean Six Sigma combines this quality process along with Lean manufacturing to define a controlled process to improve the organization throughput by reducing the process overheads and integrated problems. In this present work, an effective Lean Six Sigma model is presented for an institution running the higher educational programs. The throughput is here defined in terms of student performance. The Lean Six Sigma model will be here applied on various aspects for various stakeholders associated with the institute and identifies problem constraints and deficiencies in the system. This model will provide the survey oriented quality assessment approach for students, teachers and other staff. The work is here defined to identify the various deficiencies in that are degrading the student performance and institution throughput. The work will also explore the areas where the significant improvement is required.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0478
36

Survey of Challanges in Distributed Denial of Service Attacks and IP Traceback Countermeasures

Vijay Bharti, Nasib Singh Gill

Abstract

The dependence of heritage on recognition and telephony philosophy (ICT) beyond the decade certainly old invented deploying it a property popularly matured circulate Denial-of- Service (DDoS) blasts. These solutions try out the electricity degrees of lots of individuals and frequently hundreds and hundreds or more a number of affected desktops to punch information-providing web-services and internet marketing which was on the web, manufacturing down-time for sure detectable workplace deficits. Consequently, all of your investigations of DDoS difficulty and additionally the enrich techniques to correctly and religiously make a decision on and make self result that is final is actually particular has always been arena that may have been central of. One landmark to be special feeling a product blasts is normally accept the businesses from comparable flame most often anting techniques create every time machinery satisfy surprise better of commands on the classic possible clients.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0479
37

Face Recognition Using Discriminate Analysis and Canonical Correlations

Kallakuri .N. V.P.S.Brahma Ramesh, Gudivada Sasi Bhushana Rao

Abstract

We address the problem of comparing sets of images for object recognition, where the sets may represent variations in an object’s appearance due to changing camera pose and lighting conditions. Canonical Correlations (also known as principal or canonical angles), which can be thought of as the angles between two d-dimensional subspaces, have recently attracted attention for image set matching. Canonical correlations offer many benefits in accuracy, efficiency, and robustness compared to the two main classical methods: parametric distribution-based and nonparametric sample-based matching of sets.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0480
38

Urdu Text to Speech Convertor: Database Creation and GUI Developement

Kashif Shabeeb, Dr. Sonika Singh

Abstract

Text to speech conversion is very primitive process. In early time it was done by humans but now humans want this process to be done by machines like almost everything else. According to literature, “A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech; other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech”. Text to speech conversion is composed of two segments, text extraction and text to speech mapping. The first segment is moreover termed as “Optical Character Recognition”. In OCR, handwritten, typewritten, and/or printed text is extracted from images of these texts. The second segment is performed using various methods like template matching, feature matching, machine learning etc. In this study, a complete text to speech convertor is implemented for “Urdu” language. According to Wikipedia, “Urdu is the 19th most speaking language in the world”.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0481
39

Empirical Analysis of Scale Invariance in Transform Coefficients

Sukhjeet K. Ranade, Jyotika

Abstract

One of the necessary and useful image features in recognizing the images successfully is scale invariance. In this paper, we analyzed the effect of scaling on angular radial transform and polar harmonic transforms by computing deviation in each transform coefficient of scaled image and the original image at the same coefficient. These transforms help in extracting the features of an image which are useful for image recognition applications. But due to the presence of the sinusoidal functions, these transforms produce very high computational time complexity. Owing to this fact, we used few scale invariant coefficients instead of using all coefficients in face recognition application. On the basis of these results, the most tolerable coefficients are found out for each transform. Then, by using only 30% to 70% coefficients which produced the least scale deviation, in the application of face recognition, we reduced the time complexity while keeping the recognition rate intact.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0482
40

On the Performance Investigation of VANET Through Realistic Channel Using Rayleigh Model

Komal Sharma, Jyoteesh Malhotra

Abstract

VANET is a special type of Intelligent Transport System which provides an improved vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to interface communication by following traffic rules. It enables users to reach their destinations in a better and safe way. This paper focuses on Dedicated Short Range Communication between the vehicles, for which IEEE 802.11b & IEEE 802.11p communication standards are considered in realistic environment. Comparative performance evaluation is done between the communication standards 802.11b and 802.11p in terms of various QOS parameters. The effect of Rayleigh fading has been introduced to show how above IEEE standards will perform under highly dynamic and real time traffic conditions. The impact of fading on the performance parameters like throughput rate, collision rate, packet drop rate, unicast rate and broadcast rate has been evaluated for different values of target peak data rate to provide robust MAC layer standard for the VANET.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0483
41

An Analysis of Current ICT usage among School Children in Punjab

Ramneek Kaur, Dr. Sawtantar Singh

Abstract

Technology has significantly influenced the modern society and lifestyle and its use is growing day by day among young people in developing countries. It is playing a trivial role especially in the educational field, so it is important to analyze its use among school children for educational purposes. This would help to give new insights for new teaching technology implementation in schools. In this paper attempt has made to investigate the use of various technology tools such as Smart phones, Tablets, and PCs among the students of Public schools of District Patiala of Punjab State.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0484
42

Prime Fuzzy Submodules and Primary Fuzzy Submodules

Mohammed M. Ali Radman Al-Shamiri

Abstract

In this paper our aim is to extend some notions of ordinary prime and primary submodules into fuzzy prime and fuzzy primary submodules. Also we introduce and study other properties of prime and primary fuzzy submodules. Several results on fuzzy prime and fuzzy primary submodules are proved.
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IJCST/62/1/A-0485
43

A Study and Analysis of Dynamic Spectrum Networks Using Cognitive Radio in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

S.Tamilarasan, Dr. P.Kumar

Abstract

In wireless Ad-Hoc Networks, the users may use Cognitive Radio Frequency (CR) which senses the radio frequency for data and message communication. The modern investigate despise that the most appropriate to tackle the issues related to spectrum utilization is a function of time and space calls for dynamic access strategies that adapt to the electromagnetic environment. The spectrum regulative committees are taking measurable steps with regards to birth down the principles and implementing them, which is able to open the doors to dynamic spectrum network technologies supported psychological feature radio. The usage of free spectrum sharing between primary users (licensed) and secondary users, being license-exempted and has been incontestable within the recent experimental trails supported TV whitespace networks. The technique of dynamically accessing unused spectrum victimization Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is gaining momentum. Many experimental trails on dynamic spectrum networks are being disbursed within the TV-band spectrum to check the technology and enact rules. During this paper, a summary of psychological feature radio i.e. spectrum sensing, spectrum sharing, spectrum management and spectrum quality square measure mentioned. This paper can explore the dynamic spectrum technologies as a precursor to full-fledged psychological feature radio networks.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0486
44

A Review: Offer Based Scheduling in Grid Computing

Deepti Gupta, Verender Singh Madra

Abstract

The Grid computing is currently an active research area. One motive of Grid computing is to aggregate the power of widely distributed resources, and provide efficient services to users. Then various Grid scheduling algorithms are discussed from different points of view, such as FCFS, EDF and SJF etc. In the literature survey the topic mainly focused on offer based scheduling in resource co-allocation. In this literature survey, researchers have worked on offer-based scheduling algorithm on the factor of deadline only and totally ignore the concept of cost which can be also be a very effective factor in evaluation criterion of performance of any scheduling algorithm. Our objective is to improve the performance of offer based scheduling.
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IJCST/62/1/A-0487
45

A Zoning based Feature Extraction method for Recognition of Handwritten Assamese Characters

Elima Hussain, Abdul Hannan, Kishore Kashyap

Abstract

This paper introduces a novel feature extraction approach for handwritten Assamese character recognition. The performance of an optical character recognition system highly depends on the extracted feature set. Hence, feature extraction plays a significant role in achieving high recognition accuracy. Also, not all the features of an image are useful for classification and therefore feature extraction helps in yielding only the significant features for feeding into a classifier. We have tested the proposed method on offline handwritten Assamese characters and have obtained appropriate result.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0488
46

An Inducement Structure For Cellular Traffic Unload

Sahithi, R.China Appala Naidu

Abstract

Cellular networks are currently facing severe traffic overload problems caused by excessive traffic demands. Offloading part of the cellular traffic through other forms of networks, such as Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) and WiFi hotspot, is a promising solution since these networks can only provide intermittent connectivity to mobile users, utilizing them for cellular traffic offloading may result in a non negligible delay. As the delay increases, the users’ satisfaction decreases. we investigate the tradeoff between the amount of traffic being offloaded and the users’ satisfaction. We provide a novel incentive framework to motivate users to leverage their delay tolerance for cellular traffic offloading To minimize the incentive cost given an offloading target users with high delay tolerance and large offloading potential should be prioritized for traffic offloading To effectively capture the dynamic characteristics of users’ delay tolerance our incentive framework is based on reverse auction to let users proactively express their delay tolerance by submitting bids. We further illustrate how to predict the offloading potential of the users by using stochastic analysis for both DTN and WiFi cases Extensive trace-driven simulations verify the efficiency of our incentive framework for cellular traffic offloading Block Diagram the proposed System to implications Greedy and Enhanced greedy algorithms.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0489
47

Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)

Shrijana Pradhan, Komal Prasad, Kritie Chandra Gupta, Tannushree Bhujel

Abstract

Wireless sensor network consists of small, light weighted sensor nodes that are positioned in distant and dense areas to monitor and sense various conditions in the areas of interest. The sensor nodes arrange themselves into a network with the help of routing protocol. The use of sensors helps in increasing the energy efficiency but at the same time it also increases the data redundancy. Energy efficient data aggregation protocols are required for effective energy utilization resulting in the enhancement of the network lifetime. The protocols should be designed in an efficient way to make the best use of its limited available resources. The absence of data aggregation protocols may lead to transmission of redundant data which leads to the extra energy consumption. Various data aggregation techniques have been proposed in wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes data aggregation using the technique of mean, variance and standard deviation to decrease the data redundancy and reduction in the data packet size sensed by the sensor nodes being transmitted to the Base Station and also compares the simulation with the LEACH protocol.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0490
48

Empirical Analysis of Scale Invariance in Moment Coefficients

Sukhjeet K. Ranade, Navpreet Kaur

Abstract

Image moments capture global properties and moments like Zernike moments (ZMs), pseudo- Zernike moments (PZMs), orthogonal Fourier Mellin moments (OFMMs) and radial harmonic Fourier moments (RHFMs) are invariant to various geometric transformations like translation, scaling and rotation, which make them useful for many image recognition applications. In this paper, we analyze the effect of scaling on ZMs, PZMs, OFMMs and RHFMs for maximum order and repetition up to 10 and propose the usage of reduced number of coefficients for face recognition. Experimental results show that ZMs and PZMs perform better with respect to scale invariance property than OFMMs and RHFMs and they give satisfactory result even when approximately 60% of total ZM coefficients and 50% of total PZM coefficients are used for face recognition.

Full Paper

IJCST/62/1/A-0491
49

A Novel Approach for Secure Communication of Text Using Compression Mechanism

N.Aditya Sundar, G.Pandit Samuel, Ch. D.Naidu, M.V.Kishore

Abstract

The general encryption mechanism involves conversion of plain text into cipher text and decryption as vice versa, as well as multimedia(such as images, video, etc.,) the momentous aspect over here is that the converted cipher text always produces greater size than the original plain text. As there are innumerable number of internet users these days, more memory is accumulated in this process unnecessarily. To avoid such unnecessary accumulation of data we implement some data compression techniques over this encrypted data and also provide security mechanisms for the same and then send over the internet. But as we have many compression tools available in the open market, they fail to provide the security for the data at the same time. The same process can be implemented for the image encryption process. By encoding an image and compressing this encoded image along with security operations. Thus decryption provides the at most security for the data over the network. All the above discussed form of encoding is through Symmetric encryption where it can also be done through Asymmetric encryption. Using the Public Key Infrastructure, the encryption is done using the private key and then compressed and then it is decoded using public key and then decrypted using the secret key that has been shared between them.

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IJCST/62/1/A-0491
50

Multi-bit Watermark Embedding using Dither Modulation

Sukhjeet K. Ranade, Deepak Dhawan

Abstract

In this paper we investigate the use of four way dither modulation for high capacity watermark embedding and compare it with conventional approach of binary dither modulation. The embedding is performed in the invariant domain using Zernike moments as these moments provide minimum information redundancy, excellent resistance to noise and possess good image reconstruction capabilities. We have performed detailed experimentation to perform exhaustive comparative analysis of the two embedding methods in terms of visual imperceptibility and robustness to various geometric attacks as well as signal processing attacks.
Full Paper

IJCST/62/1/A-0491