IJCST Logo

 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (IJCST)
VOL5.2-1, Apr to June, 2014


International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol 5.2-1
  S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
    1 A Study of Environmental Assessment of Acid Mine Drainage in Bottom Sediments of Dams and Streams in Areas Around Ngwenya Iron Ore Mine, Swaziland
J.M. Thwala, C.L. Dlamini, A.O. Fadiran

Abstract

Nine heavy metals, namely Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, were analyzed from sediment samples from dams and streams around the old Ngwenya Iron Ore Mine using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Both the total and the speciated fractions of the metals were quantified after the usual pretreatments. Dams fed by running water (from around the mine) contained higher heavy metal levels than their stagnant counterparts. Estimated contamination factors of the heavy metals in the water bodies around the mine are as follows: Cd, low; Cr and Co, moderate; Zn, considerable; Mn, Fe, Cu and Ni, very high. The vertical profiles showed that most of these heavy metals preferencially accumulate in the anoxic layer of the sediments. The abundance of the bioavailable portion of the heavy metals among the three phases varied with sites. The pollution load indices (PLI) showed that all the investigated water bodies around the mine were polluted (PLI > 1), by the heavy metals.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0121
    2 Enhanced Security using Hybrid Key Exchange over MANET
Suruchi Agrawal, Shekhar Tandan

Abstract

The characteristics of Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) such as node mobility, dynamic infrastructure, unreliable multihop communication channel, resource limitation and physical vulnerability etc. are affecting the MANET processing heavily. Securing MANET has made more challenging. MANET is not having fixed infrastructure and connected mobile devices (nodes) send packets to the destination nodes directly or via the neighboring nodes. It is of potential security concern because neighbor nodes cannot be trusted. Therefore distributing encryption keys between mobile nodes in an authenticated manner is a challenging task. Various researchers have worked on MANET security concerns and Identity Based Cryptography (IBC) has been applied by many. Key based processing over MANET requires to generate a new session key for every node as it enters into the network. The keys are distributed using the trust servers or through pattern key distribution mechanism. This work is focusing on security of the MANET routing using mixed intermediate keys for making communication between nodes. Simulations are being proposed to show the improved packet delivery ratio. Attacks are being avoided reactively by including changes in the basic implementation of DSDV routing protocol. This work proposes to provide unique key based authentication for DSDV based MANET routing.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0122
    3 Software Security Durability
Rajeev Kumar, Suhel Ahmad Khan, Raees Ahmad Khan

Abstract

Security is the most important quality factor in the field of software engineering, we should take care of security and so the software security must be analysed. Identification of security at the early phase produces important upgrading to understand the management of security artifacts for finest possible results. Security attributes provides a significant way to ensure security and trustworthiness of software. Security measurement is the key factor in estimating, administrating, controlling security in order to improve quality of system software. It is to be known that credentials of security attributes helps in distinguishing worms, threats, vulnerabilities and attacks in design phase. This paper will discuss the definition and classification of existing security factors. Durability is an attribute of security that refers to the ability to execution of a product on time. For software, identified that security factors are affected with durability and discussed about software security factors with object-oriented design properties and how it can be done.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0123
    4 Human Computer Interaction Augmented Interaction Approach in Terms of Ubiquitous Computing
Mudit Mittal, Atul Kulshrestha

Abstract

Human Computer Interaction is basically deals with the relationship between the Man and the Machine (Computers). In this paper we mainly focus on innovative interaction and visualization strategies. In this contribution a new approach for interaction the so-called Augmented Interaction is presented. We also discuss the Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp) or Pervasive Computing and Virtual Reality in terms of Human Computer Interaction.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0124
    5 A Review Paper on Black Hole Attack in MANET Using AODV
Renu Yadav, Meenu Hans, Neha Bhateja

Abstract

MANETs are self organised set of nodes which communicate with each other without any infrastructure. Since MANET has no centralized management, network topology of MANET is dynamic in nature. That is why routing protocol of ad-hoc network suffer from routing attacks such as Black Hole attack, Gray Hole attack. Reactive routing protocols like AODV are mostly used than any table driven protocol to find out route. One of the common attack in ad-hoc network is black hole attack in which a malicious node claims that it has a fresh enough path to destination and then drops all data packets forwarded to it. In this paper we describe the routing mechanism of AODV protocol and briefly describe the different methods proposed by researchers to simulate the effect of black hole attack on the network.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0125
    6 Cloud Computing: A Comprehensive Study on Cloud Computing Security Issues
Mandeep Kaur Saggi, Ranjeet Kaur Sandhu

Abstract

“Cloud computing is an emerging model of business computing”. Cloud Computing is a term, which involves distributed computing, networking, virtualization and web-services. Cloud computing is set of resources and services offered through the Internet. Cloud computing is a promising technology to facilitate development of high scale product, on-demand, flexible in computing infrastructures. Cloud storage enables users to access and store their data anywhere. In this paper we introduce a detailed analysis of the cloud security problem. In this problem from the cloud architecture approach, the cloud offered characteristics, the cloud Security issues, and the cloud service delivery models approach. The data privacy is a key security problem in cloud computing which comprises of data integrity, data confidentiality and user privacy specific concerns. Most of the persons do not prefer cloud to store their data as they are having a fear of losing the privacy of their confidential data. Many traditional and new technologies and strategies must be used together for protecting the total cloud computing system & solve them which also satisfies the user regarding their data security.Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0126
    7 Data Mining Methods For Data Re-Arrangement: A Case Study
K.Rajiv, A.Prashanthi, Emmadi Praveen, Saturi.Rajesh

Abstract

Data Classification Using Data mining techniques is used for classify the data. Classification is performed on input data and returns a classifier tree as output. It is a two step process-In first step; a classifier is built describing a pre determined set of data classes or concepts. The model is constructed by analyzing data mining tuples described by attributes. In second step, the classifier is used for classification. The predictive accuracy of the classifier is estimated. It has been tested on different samples and was observed that the tuples are successfully classified. Data classification technique is capable of processing a wider variety of data and is growing in popularity. You’ll also find output that is much easier to interpret. By using this technique you’ll receive a decision tree that requires a series of binary decisions. Data Classification involves the following procedure that is user gives the trained set data to system, then system takes this data and create entropy set and then convert to data set and then select root node and then analyze all remaining nodes, then generate a decision tree.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0127
    8 Feature Based Person Tracking System for Surveillance Application
B.Sreepathi, H.Girisha, K.Karibasappa

Abstract

Detecting moving objects in video sequences is very important in visual surveillance. This describes a method for accurately tracking persons in indoor surveillance video stream obtained from a static camera with difficult scene properties including illumination changes and solves the major occlusion problem. Firstly, a crowd is segmented by frame-difference technique, followed by morphological processing and region growing. Detecting and tracking multiple moving people in a complex environment with indoor surveillance video stream obtained from a static camera. First, moving objects are precisely extracted by determining its motion, for further processing. The scene illumination changes are averaged to obtain the accurate moving object during background subtraction process. In case of objects occlusion, we use the color feature information to accurately distinguish between objects. The first sub-task in object tracking is, each motion block in the current frame is segmented into areas of almost similar color as clusters (head, torso and feet). Frame subtraction method is through the difference between two consecutive images to determine the presence of moving objects. The second sub-task is, to identify matching color information between motion blocks in the current frame and motion blocks in the previous frames. This is done by comparing the cluster color information of a cluster of the motion block in the current frame with the cluster color information of clusters in all motion blocks in the previous frames using weighted matching. The background subtraction method is to use the difference method of the current image and background image to detect moving objects, with simple algorithm, but very sensitive to the changes in the external environment. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with experiments in an indoor environment.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0128
    9 The Effect of Cloud Computing Stack and Its Virtualization
Lenka Venkata Satyanarayana

Abstract

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services over the Internet. Cloud services allow individuals and businesses to use software and hardware that are managed by third parties at remote locations. The different types of Cloud Computing services are Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and cloud virtualization which will help the researchers to more concentrate on this area. Examples of cloud services include online file storage, social networking sites, webmail, and online business applications. The cloud computing model allows access to information and computer resources from anywhere that a network connection is available.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0129
    10 A Review of Textual Data Clustering and Algorithms
Mehak Chawla, Shabnam Parveen

Abstract

The goal of clustering is to determine the intrinsic grouping in a set of unlabeled data. How to decide and what constitutes a good clustering Algorithm is a research issue? It can be shown that there is no absolute “best” criterion, which would be independent of the final aim of the clustering. Consequently, it is the user, which must supply this criterion, in such a way that the result of the clustering will suit their needs. This review work is dedicated to selecting textual clustering algorithms for dimensionality reduction especially k-mean clustering algorithm.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0130
    11 Flexible and Scalable Access Control in Cloud Computing
Thamayanthi.M, Dhiveha.S

Abstract

Cloud computing technology requires users to entrust their valuable data to cloud providers, there have been increasing security and privacy concerns on outsourced data.In order to realize scalable, flexible, and fine-grained access control of outsourced data in cloud computing, in this paper, we propose Hierarchical Attribute Set-Based Encryption (HASBE) by extending ciphertext-policy Attribute-Set-Based Encryption (ASBE) with a hierarchical structure of users. The proposed scheme not only achieves scalability due to its hierarchical struc-ture, but also inherits flexibility and fine-grained access control in supporting compound attributes of ASBE. In addition, HASBE employs multiple value assignments for access expiration time to deal with user revocation more efficiently than existing schemes. We formally prove the security of HASBE based on security of the ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) scheme.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0131
    12 A Survey Cost Algorithms for Reducing High Toll Transactions
Vinay Singh, Dr. S.Gavaskar

Abstract

Mining Cost Efficient item-sets from a transactional database refers to the discovery of transaction sets with Cost Efficient characteristics improving all profits.Although a number of important algorithms have been proposed in recent years, they have the problem of producing a large number of candidate itemsets for Cost Efficient item-sets. Such a large number of candidate item-sets degrade the mining performance in terms of execution time and space requirement. The condition may become worse when the database contains lots of long transactions or long Cost Efficient item-sets. In this paper, we propose new algorithm, for mining Cost Efficient item-sets with a set of effective strategies for pruning candidate item-sets. The information of Cost Efficient item-sets is maintained in a tree-based data structure such that candidate item-sets can be generated efficiently with only two scans of database.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0132
    13 Bistability in Online Social Network With an Analysis of their Models and Comprehensive Activities
Pawade Abhijeet, Pawade Amit, Safa Madki, Namrata Doijode, Imran Pathan

Abstract

Online social networking is increasingly prominent social phenomenon that has motivated much interesting research in networking. This work studies the dynamic evolment of online social networks by a simple stochastic model that captures the inter deprndent social interactions.We show that multiple stable states exist in the evolment of online social networks, leading to fundamental ramifications to the structure of online social networks and their application.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0133
    14 Face Recognition and Emotion Classification: A Review
Ruby Kamboj, Sarita

Abstract

Affective computing is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer science, psychology, and cognitive science. A motivation for the research is the ability to simulate empathy. The machine should interpret the emotional state of humans and adapt its behaviour to them, giving an appropriate response for those emotion. This paper reviews affective computing in area of face recognition and classification.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0134
    15 A Survey of Optimization Algorithms for Web Page Classification
Prabhjot Kaur, Ravneet Kaur

Abstract

As the amount of information on the web is increases day by day, organizing this information could be a necessary requirement. Data mining method is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Web content mining is the mining, extraction and integration of helpful data, information and knowledge from Web page contents. As each component in a Web page like HTML tags and terms is taken as feature, dimension of the classification problem becomes too high to be resolved by well known classifiers decision trees and support vector machines etc. So there is a need for efficient methods to select best features to reduce feature space of the Web page classification problem.In this survey, the aim is to use a another optimization technique to select best features for Web page classification problem.The survey of Web page classification problem and various optimization techniques are performed in this paper.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0135
    16 Intersection Based VANET Routing on City Roads Using Real-Time Vehicular Traffic
Jaspreet Kaur, Meenakshi Chaudhary

Abstract

Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to support a large spectrum of mobile distributed applications that range from traffic alert dissemination and dynamic route planning to context-aware advertisement and file sharing. Considering the large number of nodes that participate in these networks and their high mobility, The problem still exist about the feasibility of applications that use end-to-end multi-hop communication in Intersection Routing on City Roads when they are executed in Real-Time Vehicular Traffic.This paper is about recent work in vehicular ad hoc networks.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0136
    17 The Enhancement of Computation Technique by Combining Enhanced RSA and El-Gamal Public Cryptosystems
Parul Goyal

Abstract

The paper proposed combining the two different asymmetric algorithms named enhanced RSA in which three prime numbers are used and other is El-Gamal based algorithm. This will increase the factoring complexity of the variable (n), where the process of its analysis with the development of equipment and tools becomes much easier nowadays. The existence of three prime numbers will give the ability to the enhanced encryption method to increase the difficulty of factoring of the variable (n), as well as speed increasing in the process of encryption and decryption. To generate a variable (n) using the original RSA algorithm, which contributes generating the public and private key that have a number of 500 digits by using two primes number with 200 digits each. In this case the multiplication process will take longer than the time of generating the same variable (n) by using three prime numbers where each number with 200 digits. On the other hand the more complexity of the algorithm is to increased by combining the other asymmetric El-Gamal algorithm. This combination of two different algorithms provide the good speed of computation because of combining the two respective problems known IFP (Integer Factorization Problem) of RSA and DLP (Discrete Logarithm Problem) of El-Gamal.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0137
    18 Localization Issues in Underwater Wireless Sensing Networks
Alka Mittal, Pinky Tanwar

Abstract

Wireless information transmission through the ocean is one of the enabling technologies for the development of future aqueous-observation systems and sensor networks. Applications of underwater sensing range from oil industry to aquaculture, and include instrument monitoring, pollution control, climate recording, and prediction of natural disturbances, search and survey missions, and study of marine life. Underwater sensor networks have drawn lot of attention because of many underwater applications. This paper is about the localization problem in underwater sensor networks. The underwater environments, the node mobility, and the large network pose various challenges and most current localization schemes are not applicable withhuman operation underwater being very much limited.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0138
    19 VANET-Inter Military Tanks Communication using Wireless Sensor Networks with Collision Prevention and Grenades Availability Protection
Sachin Jindal

Abstract

The review paper is proposed to implement VANET in military applications at war time. VANET is an ad hoc network which consists of vehicular ad hoc network oriented military tanks. This type of VANET has different challenges if we compare with the normal tank war. To understand the problem the VANET is to be simulated using java socket programming in which various issues are described mainly consists of neighbor tank position updates, collision prevention between tanks and also the main security issue of availability of grenades in the tank. If any tank gets out of stock of grenades then automatically updates to be sent to the neighbor tanks so that the protection cover can be provided. This review paper also discusses different number of scenarios of VANET which we implement in our simulation. In our simulation we use to implement VANET using different vehicles which communicate to the neighbor (WSN) wireless sensor network placed at distance apart. The vehicles are taken as tanks which are used for war. The neighbor updates are send via WSN which are placed under earth at war zone.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0139
    20 A Review On Cloud Computing Services Focusing Green Computing
Pooja Chauhan, Manjeet Gupta

Abstract

Green computing is defined as to study, plan, manufacture, consume and dispose computers, servers, and its associated subsystems like monitors, storage devices, printers and networking and communications systems efficiently, effectively and successfully with minimal or no impact on the environment. The main goals of green computing are to diminish the use of hazardous and harmful resources as well as exploiting the energy efficiency of the resources during the product’s lifetime.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0140
    21 Security Risks in Cloud Network Innovations in Industries
Ajit Singh, Chetan Sharma, Shuchi Sharma

Abstract

For last many years the network was represented as a seven layer architecture. Since the year 2008 , several companies are on a cloud computing network. As an emerging technology SaaS, PasS and IaaS are being used at a higher rate. Cloud computing leads to more flexibility, better scalability, higher availability, shorter time to market and better cost control But as more and more information on companies are placed on cloud, concerns are being grown about the security of data placed on third party’ local area networks. Keeping in view about the security risks the interest of using clouds is being slowed down. The academia and industry partnership group was formed in 2008 which sets up some rules to integrate various platforms and create some test beds for cloud computing security. The main security breach in this technology is putting your data, running your software on someone else’ system. The Various security risks involved in it are phishing and botnet.
Cloud security is abstract and complex, however, and difficult to estimate and measure. This research paper includes a smaller case study of a company using IaaS, where large scale of data was on CSP’s Server was used intentionally by an unauthorized personnel. In this research paper key security threats, risks and various security mechanisms which are currently faced and used in the Cloud computing are discussed. Cloud computing has the potential to become a frontrunner in promoting a secure, virtual and economically viable IT solution in the future. However, one must be very careful to understand the security risks and challenges posed in utilizing these technologies.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0141
    22 Reviewing Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensing Networks
Mohit Kumar, Nitin Goyal

Abstract

Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) is a new networking paradigm to explore the uninhabited oceans. However, the characteristics of UWSNs, such as large delay, node mobility, and limited link capacity, are significantly different from existing small scale Underwater Acoustic Networks. This paper surveys Underwater Wireless Sensor Network and their challenges.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0142
    23 The Impact of Customer’s Attitude towards Technology and Risk on the Intention to Purchase Online
Anchal Jain, Dr. Mamta Sareen

Abstract

The growing rate of adoption of e-commerce among Indian customers Indian e-commerce market is has simulated the rise of online shopping.The changing lifestyles of people have increased their reliance on Internet; still online shopping adoption rate is questionable i.e. not as good as expected. However, rigorous research on online shopping adoption is scarce today and researchers are still in look for the factors that have the potential to influence customer’s attitude to adopt online shopping channel, and intention to purchase online. Keeping all this in mind the present study made an honest attempt to answer these questions by analysing the significance of determinants of customer’s attitude to customer’s intention to purchase online. The analysis were based on data collected empirically in first quarter of 2013 from 207 respondents using the online and offline survey method to collect respondents’ reviews. The research findings revealed that there are number of determinants related to customer’s attitude namely attitude towards technology, attitude towards technical infrastructure and attitude towards risk to understanding online consumers’ behavioural intention to purchase. The study ended by offering number of recommendations or implications to companies engaged in online retailing business that help them to attract and retain customers.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0143
    24 Attracting Force Applications over Behavioral Outsourcing Data
K.Shouryadhar, Dr. R.Praveensam

Abstract

Generating large set of data items to be mined searching data that is related to domain experts. It is the main aspect in present days. For doing this work efficiently number of processing works can be introduced in variance with suitable performance in real time applications. Traditionally used many type applications manually by considering total refinement of all the information from domain experts. This was accomplished by building a web platform in which human groups interact to both respond to questions likely to help predict a behavioral outcome and pose new questions to their peers. This results in a dynamically-growing online survey, but the result of this cooperative behavior also leads to models that can predict user’s outcomes based on their responses to the usergenerated survey questions. For providing efficient permissions on outsourcing data we introduce to develop Attracted forced applications with suitable increment process in searched and mined data. These results can be provide efficient transformation between each user depending on the systematic efficiency in used information.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0144
    25 Survey of Text CAPTCHA Techniques and Attacks
Navreet Kaur, Rishi Kumar

Abstract

CAPTCHA is a challenge-response test most often placed within web forms to determine whether the user is human. The purpose of CAPTCHA is to block automated scripts that post spam content everywhere they can. This paper presents a survey of Optical Character Recognition applications and further focuses on three important applications of Optical Character Recognition, CAPTCHAS.There is a constant need to improve current CAPTCHAs and to develop new CAPTCHAs in order to safely secure against developing programs which can create thousands of e-mail accounts used for malicious purposes, stuff online polls with ballots, and develop worms and viruses contained in emails.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0145
    26 Reviewing Anomaly Detection Methods in Intrusion Detection Systems
Sugandha Tripathi, Bhushan Dua

Abstract

Today’s information systems in government and commercial sectors are disseminated and vastly interconnected through computer networks. While vital, these networks provide potential sources of attack by hackers, global competitors, and others. The frequent attacks on Internet visible systems are attempts to infringe information security requirements for protection of data. Intrusion detection technology protects organizations from losses associated with network security problems.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0146
    27 Advances in Image Compression Mechanisms DCT and DWT Related Technologies
Nisha, Bhushan Dua

Abstract

Compression algorithms can be classified as being either lossless or lossy. In the case of a lossless compression algorithm the aim is to reduce the amount of source information to be ransmitted in such a way that, when the compression information is decompressed, information should not be lost . Lossless compression is, therefore, to be reversible. an example pplication of lossless compression is for the transfer over a network of a text file since, on such applications , it is normally imperative that no part of the source information is lost during the compression or decompression operations.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0147
    28 Reviewing Aspects of Component Based Development Architectures
Preeti Rana, Arzoo Dahiya

Abstract

The performance measurement of component based systems help software architects to evaluate the system performance based on behavior of their component specifications. Many Researchers have proposed many approaches into this direction but none of them has attained widespread industrial use. One of the main objectives of developing component-based software systems is to focus on reuse of already existing software components. A large number of quality models have been developed for understanding and accurately predicting quality of software and information systems. So, Quality models should be constructed in accordance to the specific features of the application domain. In this paper, we have conducted a comprehensive state-of-the-art survey of various these approaches assessing their applicability and this paper presents challenges to the development of complete and enveloping software quality models as a solution to these challenges and their importance is also elaborated.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0148
    29 Surveying XML RPCs for Enterprise Services
Shivali Chaudhary, Sarita Chaudhary

Abstract

XML-RPC is among the cleanest web service approaches, and makes it easy for computers to call procedures on other computers. XML-RPC reuses infrastructure that was originally created for communications between humans to support communications between programs on computers. For many organizations the implementation of ERP systems has been problematic. In the changing business environment it is difficult to implement packaged ERP software. Technologies like xml-rpc can make it very easy to implement cloud based ERP systems This paper reviews some of the techniques.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0149
    30 Survey of 802.11 MAC Layer Protocols
Karuna Malik, Sarita Choudhary

Abstract

The wireless networks, including IEEE 802.11/15/16, are not designed for real-time applications. Therefore supporting real-time quality of service in wireless real-time control is quite difficult. This paper surveys some of IEEE 802.11 standards. Performance indices such as throughput and packet delay of previous papers with evaluation studies are also taken into consideration, particularly under the critical real-time traffic condition.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0150
    31 Accurate Weather Modeling and Forecasting
Divya Anand, Kiran Jain

Abstract

Precise weather forecasting is very important in today’s world as agricultural and industrial sectors are principally dependent on the weather conditions. it is also used to forecast and warn about natural disasters. Weather perdition and forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. Researchers have tried to forecast the weather informally for millennia. Usually, Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere and using scientific understanding of atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0151
    32 Digital Audio Watermarking: A Survey of Current Trends
Naveen, Sunil Ahuja

Abstract

Digital watermarking has been proposed in recent years as a means of protecting multimedia contents from intellectual piracy. This is achieved by modifying the original content, by inserting a signature which can be extracted, when necessary, as a proof of ownership. Many effective watermarking algorithms have been proposed and implemented for digital images and digital video, however, few algorithms have been proposed for audio watermarking. This paper reviews some of recent work being conducted in Digital Audio watermarking.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0152
    33 Resource Allocation in Network Based Virtualized Cloud Computing
Prince Paul, Bhusan Dua

Abstract

Cloud computing has become a new age technology enormous potential in enterprises and global markets. Only clouds can make it possible to access applications and associated data from anywhere seamlessly. Companies are able to rent resources from cloud for storage and other computational purposes so that their infrastructure cost can be reduced significantly. However the the challenges are also immense as users requesting number of cloud services simultaneously, resources must be made available to requesting user in efficient manner to satisfy their need without compromising on the performance of the resources. The other challenges of resource allocation are meeting customer demands and application requirements.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0153
    34 An Approach to Recognize Characters based on Back Propagation Using Neural Network
Neha Sharma, Neeraj Dahiya

Abstract

The main driving force behind neural network researchis the desire to create a machine that works similar to the mannerour own brain works. Neural networks have been used in avariety of different areas to solve a wide range of problems.Unlike human brains that can identify and memorize thecharacters like letters or digits; computers treat them as binarygraphics. Therefore, algorithms are necessary to identify andrecognize each character. In this article, we are going to look at amethod for handwritten character recognition was performed in order to improve the learning capability and accuracy of classification. Training data is first analyzed of line and information which differentiate them most is selected.Selected information determines characteristics of the neural networks.
Characters using back propagation algorithm. A Backpropagation network consists of at least three layers of units, aninput layer, at least one intermediate hidden layer, and an outputlayer. When a Back propagation network is cycled, an inputpattern is propagated forward to the output units through theintervening input-to-hidden and hidden-to-output weights.
Full Paper

IJCST/52/1/A-0154