VOL 5.3 Ver-1, Oct to Dec, 2014

International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol 5.3-1

S.No. Research Topic Paper ID Download

Routing Protocols and Network Simulator in Multihop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network: A Review

Sudhir Singh, Rajeshwar Singh

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) allows portable devices to establish communication independent of a central infrastructure.The wireless links in this network are highly error prone and can go down frequently due to mobility of nodes. Therefore, routing in MANET is a critical task due to highly dynamic environment.Efficient Rout-ing Protocols will make MANET reliable. Mainly protocols are of three kind i.e. Proactive, Reactive and hybrid. But, we will discuss Proactive and Reactive Protocols. Several Routing Protocols for MANET are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV) and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA). This paper presents the survey of Routing Protocols and NS2 in MANET and provides an overview of these protocols by presenting their characteristics, functionality, benefits and then their comparative analysis parameters. Depending on parameters one can compare the performance of Routing Protocols. Full Paper

Performance Optimization of Industrial System Using Genetic Algorithm: A Case Study

Vikas Kumar, Vikas Modgil, Sandeep Kumar

The paper deals with the performance optimization for mat production system in textile industry, using Genetic Algorithm (G.A.). The failure and repair rates of these subsystems follow exponential distributions and assumed to be constant. Mathematical formulation is carried out using probabilistic approach and Markov birth – death process is used to develop the Chapman-Kolmogorov difference differential equations. These equations are further solved recursively in order to derive the Steady State Availability expression. The optimal values of availability of mat production system have been evaluated using Matlab G.A. tool. The steady state availability obtained from Markov analysis is also compared with the optimal availability calculated through G.A. Full Paper

Design & Validation of SHA 224 IP Core

Jinita Jose, Nandakumar R, Nisha J S

To provide secure digital telecommunication cryptography is used. Hash function is an interesting and growing area in cryptography. Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA) is a family of cryptographic hash functions. SHA 2 consist of four variants viz; SHA 224, SHA 256, SHA 384 and SHA 512. In this paper design, implementation and characterization of SHA 224 core is presented. VerilogHDL is used to model the hardware. Xilinx® Virtex®-6 FPGA (XC6VLX240T-1FF1156) is used to prototype the design. A throughput of 1206.088Mbps is obtained. Full Paper

Image Segmentation Using Haar DWT & Texture Analysis in Matlab

Anuj Singh, Mauli Joshi

The latest development in the modern publishing technologies, the layout of today’s documents has never been more complex. Most of them contain not only text and background regions, but also graphics, tables and pictures. Therefore scanned documents must often be segmented before other document processing techniques,such as compression or rendering, can be applied. The paper focus of the texture analysis and extraction from colour images after image segmentation. The basic idea behind segmentation is region growing and used to identify one or more criteria that are characteristic for the desired region. After establishing the criteria,the image is searched for any pixels that fulfill the requirements.Whenever such a pixel is encountered, its neighbors are checked,and if any of the neighbors also match the criteria, both the pixels are considered as belonging to the same region. The text extraction is carried out using HAAR Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)applied in MATLAB 2013 image processing tool. The paper alsodiscusses the masking technique applied for image segmentationalso. Full Paper

Measuring Facts of Security Issues in Cloud Computing

Shipra Yadav, Keshao Kalaskar

Cloud computing has quickly become one of the most prominent buzzwords in the IT world due to its revolutionary model of computing as a utility. It promises increased flexibility, scalability,and reliability, while promising decreased operational and support costs. However, many potential cloud users are reluctant to move to cloud computing on a large scale due to the unaddressed security issues present in cloud computing. In this paper, I investigate the major security issues present in cloud computing today based on a framework for security subsystems adopted from IBM. I present the solutions proposed by other researchers, and address the strengths and weaknesses of the solutions. Although considerable progress has been made, more research needs to be done to address the multi-faceted security concerns that exist within cloud computing. Security issues relating to standardization, multi-tenancy, and federation must be addressed in more depth for cloud computing to overcome its security hurdles and progress towards widespread adoption. Full Paper

Design & Validation of SHA 384 IP Core

Chippy James, Nandakumar R, Anuja George

The demand for strong secure data transmission is increasing due to the tremendous development in digital telecommunication. One of the solutions for data security is cryptography. Hash functions are interesting and growing area in cryptography. The Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA) is the most popular cryptographic hash function. SHA 2 is a powerful hash function and it consist of four variants viz; SHA 224, SHA 256, SHA 384 and SHA 512.In this paper design, implementation and characterization of SHA 384 core is presented. Verilog HDL is used to model the hardware. Xilinx® Virtex®-6 FPGA (XC6VLX240T-1FF1156) is used to prototype the design. A throughput of 1673.6384Mbps is obtained. Full Paper

Comparing Results of Various Asymmetric Cryptography Algorithms Using MATLAB

Shaina Arora, Pooja

This paper belongs to the implementation of various asymmetric key cryptography techniques by modifying their working architecture as well as mixing of various algorithms together and then to do the comparative study along with various complexity analysis. Cryptography basicallymeant for secure communication,its motive to send or receive the massage, should be secure, confidential,authenticated and non-repudiate. This paper is based on the combination of RSA AND El-Gamal Cryptography with their security issues. The RSA Cryptography depends on the Integer Factorization Problem (IFP), while the El-Gamal Cryptosystem depends on Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP). This model works on the basis of merging between IFP with DLP which gives a good speed of computation for asymmetric cryptosystem based on difficulties of the solutions of two difficult problems,Hence the computation of the proposed system is more efficient compared to El-Gamal algorithm and RSA algorithm. Cryptography is a well known for confidentiality , security and privacy .Here in this paper we are working on the implementation of various asymmetric key cryptography techniques by modifying their working architecture as well as mixing of various algorithms together and then to do the comparative study along with various complexity analysis. Full Paper

Design & Validation of SHA 512 IP Core

Manjusha Maria Alex, Nandakumar R, Sarath Chandran C

The amount of sensitive data being transmitted over the internet has been increased due to the rapid development in communication industry. In this context, ensuring security has prime importance.Cryptography can address many security issues. Hash function is an interesting and growing area in cryptography. Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA) is a family of cryptographic hash functions.SHA 2 is a unifying name for the four hashing algorithms SHA 224, SHA 256, SHA 384 and SHA 512. In this paper design, implementation and characterization of SHA 512 core is presented.Verilog HDL is used to model the hardware. Xilinx® Virtex® -6FPGA (XC6VLX240T-1FF1156) is used to prototype the design.A throughput of 1623.3344Mbps is obtained. Full Paper

Theoretical Aspects on Image Segmentation & Analysis

Anuj Singh, Mauli Joshi

There are various techniques to detect and localize the text in images and videos. All these approaches are taken into consideration with different properties related to text in an image such as color, points, intensity, lines connected-components, edges etc. These properties of images are used to distinguish text regions from their background and/or other regions within the image. The binary input image is first pre-processed to remove any noise if present, and then the image is grouped into different color layers and a gray component. The approach helps in the utilization the fact that usually the color data in text characters is different from the color data in the background. The research paper focus on the theoretical survey carried in the image segmentation and texture analysis on colour images. Full Paper

Design of Blow Fish Encryption Engine

Anu Priya Sunny, Biljy.P.H, Nandakumar.R

For an encryption engine the security of the key is the most important factor.it is not necessary to have a lengthy key for increased security. In this paper we are discussing about how to design a secure encrypyion algorithm (BLOWFISH) [2]using a key with variable length. Here the length of the key may vary from 32 bits to 448 bits. An efficient algorithm for key generation is explained in detail later in this paper. Here the input plain text and the output cipher text are of 64 bits. The input plain text after undergoing a series of operations gets transformed into the cipher text. Here we make use of one P-array(permutation array) and four S- boxes (substitution boxes). Both the P-array and four S-boxes are initialized with the hexadecimal equivalents of pi.The process of encryption and decryption are comparably the same except from the fact of utilizing the elements of P-array in the reverse order. Full Paper

Design Based Pre- Distribution Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Scalable Key

Ch. Anil Kumar

One of the main concerns when designing a key management scheme is the network scalability. Indeed, the protocol should support a large number of nodes to enable a large scale deployment of the network. In this paper, we propose a new scalable key management scheme for WSNs which provides a good secure connectivity coverage. For this purpose, we make use of the Symmetric-key design theory. We show that the basic mapping from Symmetric-key to key pre-distribution allows us to achieve high network scalability. we propose an enhanced Symmetrickey -based key pre- distribution scheme providing high network scalability and good key sharing probability providing high secure connectivity coverage and overall improved performance. Full Paper

Ant Colony Optimization Based Software Effort Estimation

Nishu Dewan, Sumeet Kaur Sehra

Accurate software development cost estimation is important for effective project management such as budgeting, project planning and control. Nowadays there are many models for software development cost estimation, providing project managers with helpful information to make the right decisions. One of such well known mathematical models is the COCOMO model. To estimate costs and time, this model uses coefficients, which were determined in 1981 by means of the regression analysis of statistical data based on 63 different types of project data. Using these coefficients for a modern project, the appraisal may not be accurate; therefore, the aim of this work is to optimize the model coefficients with ant colony optimization algorithms. Firstly, collect and clean the data. The outliers are removed during analyzing the data. Then different paths are generated by ants. The best path is selected by using Ant colony optimization algorithm. The performance of the system is analyzed by mean magnitude of relative error. The percent improvement of proposed model over COCOMO model is 92.29%. Full Paper

A Wireless Protocol to Prevent Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad-Hoc Network

Anusha, Vikram Singh

The nature of wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks make them very attractive to attackers. One of the most popular and serious attack in wireless ad hoc and sensor network is the wormhole attack. It is a particularly severe attack on routing protocols for ad hoc networks in which two or more colluding attackers record packets at one location, and tunnel them to another location for a replay at that remote location. When this attack targets routingcontrol packets, the nodes that are close to the attackers are defended from any alternative routes with more than one or two hops to the remote location. All routes are thus directed to the wormhole established by the attackers. The wormhole attack is particularly challenging to deal with since the adversary does not need to compromise any nodes and can use laptops or other wireless devices to send the packets on a low latency channel. This Paper focuses on threat that wormhole attack possesses on network and also mentions one of the few initiatives with the respective specifications to solve the problem. Full Paper

Cloud Computing: The Future of IT Business

Shikha Chadha

Cloud computing technology has been a new buzzword in the IT industry and expecting a new horizon for coming world. It is a style of computing which is having dynamically scalable virtualized resources provided as a service over the Internet.It reduces the time required to procure heavy resources and boot new server instances in minutes, allowing one to quickly scale capacity, both up and down, as ones requirement changes. Nevertheless the technology is hot in the market and is ready to cater to the small and medium business segment. As per one of the estimates from Gartner, by year 2012, 20% of enterprise market e-mail seats will be delivered via Cloud. As per another estimate from Gartner, Software as a Service is forecast to have a compound annual growth rate of 17% through 2011 for CRM, ERP and SCM markets in SMB segment. While the enterprises are exploring the possibilities of adopting this technology, it is imperative for these enterprises to critically evaluate the feasibility of this technology for their specific businesses. Full Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Type Leach in Wireless Sensor Network

Nabeela Ansari, Raj Kumar Paul

Wireless sensor network is an emerging technology which has an immense scope of research and development. It has the potential of quick capturing, processing and transferring data with high resolution to the base station. WSN consists of multiple sensor nodes, these nodes have low storage capability and limited battery life which dies due to the computation and transmission of data. It is not feasible to replace these batteries due to there placement in isolated areas. In this paper we will emphasize on maximizing energy efficiency and improvement of life span of network.Clustering is the technique which balances the load on sensor network and reduces energy dissipation. LEACH is one of the self organized clustering routing protocols which will be explored and modified. Further we will compare various LEACH protocols on the basis of there features and we will throw some light on future possibilities and outdo. Full Paper

To Avoid Late Night Security Problems of Passengers Travelling in Cab Services Using Web-Based Mini Screens

Yanmangandla Revanth Kumar, Vislavath Shiva Krishna, Jerripothula Manish Kumar, Mohd. Amair

Now-A-Days, most of the people are showing interest on education. But it is very hard to get the job. So they prefer to the unrelated stream of education which are leading to the work in night time. Because of this reason, most of the companies are taking an advantage and run the companies even in the night times (though it’s not US bound process) But the employees of the companies are not provided with proper security precautions which in turn lead to theft, kidnaps & even rape n killings. For this GOVT has taken many precautions but they are hard to implement and cannot be well functioned. For example,The Delhi Police have issued a notice to safeguard women workers under Criminal Procedure Code (CRPC) 144 to all BPO companies, media and corporate houses in Delhi and the National Capital Region. Even though these days the women are willing to do the job for their economical and financial crisis. They are subjected too much insecurity concerning the job. For instance In November 2007 cab drivers Purushottam Borate and Pradeep Yashwant Kokoda kidnapped, raped and murdered Jyotikumari Choudhury who worked with a call center in Pune sending shock waves across the country especially amongst women who work in night shifts or at odd hours based on these circumstances, they are afraid to do their job at night time. Full Paper

Intersection Based VANET Routing on City Roads Using Real-Time Vehicular

Jaspreet Kaur, Meenakshi Chaudhary

The aim of this work is to develop a VANET-Simulation scenario for supporting various VANET specific applications mobile distributed applications ranging from traffic alert dissemination and dynamic route planning to context-aware advertisement and file sharing. The main concern is whether the performance of VANET routing protocols can satisfy the throughput and delay requirements of such applications. Considering the large number of nodes that participate in these networks and their high mobility, The problem still exist about the feasibility of applications that use end-to-end multi-hop communication in Intersection Routing on City Roads when they are executed in Real-Time Vehicular Traffic. Simulation was done using urban city maps settings and they will evaluate performance best in terms of average delivery rate. Full Paper

Performance Analysis of Cloud Server in Multi Cloud Environment

Hesamaddin Akrami, Nasibeh Mohammadzadeh, Dr. D Vasumathi

Cloud computing could be a recent technology and it’s the utilization of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over net. It’s been followed by several IT organizations since it’s elastic, reliable, and versatile and additionally it permits firms to avoid direct infrastructure prices. One cloud supplier theme could be a usual factor, at a similar present all over access to cloud resources. But, nowadays, parallel usage of services provided by multiple suppliers is desired. To handle this issue and for determination loosely coupled several Task Computing (MTC) applications, we have a tendency to build up a situation to line up a computing cluster on the highest of a multi cloud infrastructure. With this model, resources from multiple clouds are often provided to the cluster nodes to get the important benefits of cloud computing. The most goal of this work is to investigate the viability with relevancy quantifiability, performance, and price of deploying massive virtual cluster infrastructures distributed overtotally different cloud suppliers for determination loosely coupled MTC applications. During this work, we’ve simulated associate degree infrastructure model that features a bigger quantity of computing resources and multiple tasks. Performance and price results obtained from the simulation show that they’ll be extended to cluster infrastructures and huge scale issues. Full Paper

Surveying Window NT Security and Cryptographic Hash Generation Technologies

Priya Sharma, Gurdev Singh

Breaking encrypted passwords has been of interest to hackers for a long time, and protecting them has always been one of the biggest security problems operating systems have faced, with Microsoft’s Windows being no exception. Due to errors in the design of the password encryption scheme, especially in the Lan Man(LM) scheme, Windows has a bad track in this field of information security. Especially in the last couple of years, where the outdated DES encryption algorithm that LanMan is based on faced more and more processing power in the average household, combined with ever increasing harddisk size, made it crystal clear that LanMan nowadays is not just outdated, but even antiquated. This paper surveys various flaws in window NT environment security. Full Paper

Online Auction Service Based on the Applications Within Cloud

Biswaranjan Mohanty, CH. Srinivasulu

As cloud offerings mature, service-based applications ought to dynamically recompose themselves to self-adapt to dynamic QoS necessities. during this paper, we have a tendency to gift a redistributed mechanism for such selfadaptation, exploitation market-based heuristics.we have a tendencyto use never-ending double-auction to permit applications to come to a decision that services to settle on, among the various on provide. we have a tendency to read AN application as a multi-agent system and also the cloud as a marketplace wherever several such applications self-adapt.we have a tendency to selected a market-based approach to self-adaptation, not solely as a result of it’s redistributed, however conjointly thanks to its simple relevance to the matter domain. this permits a selfadaptive application to alter the QoS exhibited by switch to a distinct Concrete Service. The “Bidding system with Multi complete & Product Selection” could be a web-based enterprise application that automates all doable business functionalities of the bidding sector like providing info catalog of varied companies ‘merchandise, participate the new action to the actual product, providing info of the company’s, providing explicit product value, deposited the number and providing alerts to the user United Nations agency is participate the actions. As this can be an internet application, it supports to the purchasers to buy the merchandise simple approach. Full Paper

Performance Enhancing Component Based Software Quality Models

Karnail Singh, Dr. Sushil Garg

Software component technology is widely seen as the best means of achieving the gains in programmer efficiency, system elasticity, and overall system quality required by the IT revolution. With increasing the software applications and the critical risks due to the low quality software, the importance of high quality software development has been getting more important than ever. Therefore, for quality evaluation it is necessary to remove subjective and traditional evaluation patterns and to accept an objective approach that develops software considering quality characteristics from the beginning stage and performs each step’s quality evaluation thoroughly. The model defined and illustrated in this research here provides an explicit process for binding quality-carrying properties into software. These properties in turn imply particular quality attributes. This research work, proposes a quantitative software quality evaluation model with respect to the Component Based Development (CBD) methodology. Full Paper

Packet Loss Enhancement in Mobile Network Using Multi-Homing Mobility Technique

Anupama B S, Anil Kumar

Mobility is everything seems to be the slogan of our society. Nowadays mobility means liberty and liberty needs mobility. Our society wants to be always online, always able to communicate. Since the future infrastructure for this communications seems to be based on mobile networks, mobility needs IP mobility. The emerging field of wireless sensor networks includes sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device. While the capabilities of any single device are minimal, the composition of devices offers radical new technological possibilities. This paper presents a new approach for developing the multi-homing network system that increases the performance of mobile network. This approach also gives a new way of network topology, new protocols of programming internetworking devices,as well as applying the mobile IP addressing for sending and receiving the packets between the Internet service provider and the mobile recipient, and gives a reliable algorithm for enhancing troubleshooting packet loss. Full Paper

Survey / Review of Handwritten and Optical Character Recognition

Subodh Bansal, Dr Shaveta Rani, Dr Paramjeet Singh

Optical / Handwritten Character Recognition isthe electronic translation of handwritten, typewritten orprinted text into machine translated images then into Machine codes which can be edited using common software’s like MS-Word, notepad, etc.. It is widely used torecognize and search text from electronic documents and or topublish the text on a website. The paper presents a survey of character recognition algorithms and actas a good literature survey for researchers starting to work inthe field of optical / handwritten character recognition. Full Paper

A Neural Network Approach for Recognize Punjabi Font and Character

Reena Joshi, Dinesh Kumar

This paper is dealing with the recognition of font and character problem in Punjabi language. Punjabi script presents great challenges to the detection of font type phase due to the large number of characters and the sophisticated ways in which they combine.It is feed forward neural network as a classifier and operates on a given set of known fonts. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by a set of tests made on a database of characters combining 10 classes of fonts of Punjabi characters that are mostly used. The average character recognition rate is 90% and average font recognition rate is 99%. The most important advantages of our algorithm are low feature dimensions, low computational complexity, and high speed. Full Paper

Handwritten and Optical Character Recognition by Heuristic and Nearest Neighbor Approach

Subodh Bansal, Dr. Shaveta Rani, Dr. Paramjeet Singh

In this paper I present an overview of a character recognition technique for on-line and off-line recognition of isolated character’s i.e. for both handwritten and optical. There are 3 basic techniques used which are Nearest Neighbor, horizontal heuristic graphs and vertical heuristic graphs in 2 fashions i.e. least distance measurement and average distance measurement. The efficiency of these methods alone is very less, but efficiency after combining these after many techniques was increased to maximum possible up to 99.52%. Full Paper

A Survey of Association Rule Mining Using Ant Colony Optimization & Genetic Algorithm

Gurdeep Singh, Shruti Aggarwal

Data mining is the process to extract knowledge which uses Association Rule Mining (ARM) technique to find relationship between the data values/variables & generates quality rules. The quality rules generated through association rule mining are used for decision making and prediction. The classic example of association rule mining is Market basket Analysis. Optimization of ARM technique produces excellent rules that help in making more accurate decisions. In this paper a survey of association rule mining using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is done along with the comparative study of ACO & GA, which help in generating strong association rules. Full Paper

Recent Advances in Cloud Security

Shipra Yadav, Keshao Kalaskar

Cloud computing emerges as a new computing paradigm which aims to provide reliable, customized and QoS guaranteed dynamic computing environments for end-users. Although cloud computing industry promises tremendous prospects of market growth, for users of cloud services, cloud computing has a wide range of potential risks and safety issues. This article gives a quick introduction to cloud security. It covers the key technologies of cloud computing, security challenge and problem in cloud computing, recent advances in cloud security. Full Paper