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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (IJCST)-VOL IV ISSUE III, VER. 1, JULY. TO SEPT, 2013


International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 4 Issue 3, Ver. 1
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
1 Evaluation Criterion to Assess the Quality Performance of Advanced Hybrid Speech Coding Techniques

Eslam Samy El-Mokadem, Mohamed M. Fouad, Talaat A. Elgarf

Abstract

Speech coding is the process of creating a minimally redundant representation of the speech signal that can be efficiently transmitted over band-limited wired or wireless channels, and Decoding the signal with the best possible perceptual Quality. The speech transmission in wireless networks is associated with the reduction of extra information present in signal in such a way to preserve the quality and intelligibility of speech. It is known that the lower the bit rate the lesser the quality of the reconstructed speech however there is a constant quest to achieve a better speech quality at lower bit-rates. This paper attempts to implement evaluation criterion to assess the quality performance of advanced hybrid speech coding techniques by using Matlab simulation. This paper compares between three algorithms of advanced hybrid speech coding technique that are commonly applied in today’s applications. The three algorithms are (CELP), (G729-ANNEX A) and (G723.1). Analytical evaluations are applied for three algorithms to measure speech Quality in terms of bit rates they work on using SNR, SNRseg, Absolute Error, Mean Square Error, PESQ, LLR,WSS, Rating of speech distortion , rating of background noise, the predicted rating of overall quality.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1593
2 Consequences of Stress with Reference to Age and Designation: An Empirical Study in IT Sector

Dr. Bharati Deshpande, Dr. Gowri Joshi

Abstract

Over the three decades there has been a growing belief in all sectors that the experience of stress of managers at work has undesirable consequence for the health and safety of individual and for the health of their organization. Due to high performance expectations from this occupation due to conflicting demands of completing a project on time, within budget, to quality, and satisfying stakeholders. This present study will help to identify different stressors in information technology sector and study the consequences of this stress amongst the Information technology managers and finally to investigate the physiological, psychological and behavioural impact of stress on managers on different age groups and designations (demographic independent variables).Based on the variables of stressors the instrument by International Stress Organisation was used to collect data from 500 managers in IT industry. The consequences are measured in terms of physical consequence, psychological consequence and behavioural consequence on a Likert 5 point scale.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1594
3 A New Hybrid Learning for Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

Dr. C.Loganathan, K.V.Girija

Abstract

Neuro fuzzy hybrid system is a learning mechanism that utilizes the training and learning neural networks to find parameters of a fuzzy system. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system is used for system identification and our task is to find appropriate network architecture and a set of parameters which can be a best model that is described by a set of input-output data pairs. This paper investigates the identification of the best neural network learning algorithms. As the Identification methods Back Propagation method, it is with gradient descent method as the hybrid learning method, again with Runge -Kutta Learning Algorithm (RKLM) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) based identification mechanisms are studied and their performances are comparatively evaluated.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1595
4 Implementing Lexical Feature Extraction Algorithm Using Advanced Glossing

Preeti Kamboj

Abstract

A gloss can be defined as the meaning of a word. In simple terms, Glosses are the notes made while reading the text. These notes explain the meaning of a word or a passage. The collection of glosses is called a glossary. This thesis is about Advanced Glossing Tables. If the youth is up brought with this type of glossing text techniques. They can compete anywhere at any level with less efforts. The collection of all these markers is called Gloss.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1596
5 A DCT-Based Robust Methodology for Image Steganography

Stuti Goel, Arun Rana, Manpreet Kaur

Abstract

Steganography is an important area of research in recent years involving a number of applications. It is the science of embedding information into the cover image viz., text, video, and image (payload) without causing statistically significant modification to the cover image. The modern secure image steganography presents a challenging task of transferring the embedded information to the destination without being detected.In this paper, a DCT based robust methodology has been designed. The cover image is segmented into 8*8 blocks and DCT is applied on the image. The text to be hidden is embedded in the diagonal elements of the blocks by substituting a random variable in place of the bits of the text to be embedded. It is observed that the proposed algorithm is more robust with better CER & Normalized coefficient.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1597
6 Gesture Recognition Implementation Using Neural Networks

Mahesh Sharma, Rama Chawla

Abstract

For the past few years, the common input computer devices have not changed The communicating with computers at this moment are limited to mouse, keyboard, track ball, web-cam, light pen and etc. The existing input devices are adequate enough perform most of the function for a computer. Humans express motion patterns which are loosely called gestures; these patterns are variable but distinct and have an associated meaning. The Pattern recognition by any computer or machine is being researched. This paper is a result of our implementations using ANNs for analyzing human motions patterns.
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IJCST/43/1/C-1598
7 An Effective Evolution of Packet Loss With SNORT

R.China Appala Naidu, P.S.Avadhani

Abstract

In this paper the performance of the intrusion detection system SNORT is analyzed and tested for Packet loss. SNORT is implemented on Linux Operating System. It is observed that there is a significant increase in the packet drop when the traffic speedis increased simultaneously. Similarly when the packet size is augmented then the drop in packets also decreases.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1599
8 Swarm Intelligence (Ant) Based Route Repair in Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol

Manu Srivastava, Parul Yadav

Abstract

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET) constitutes a group of wireless mobile nodes that transmit information without any centralized control. MANETs are infrastructure-less and are dynamic in nature that is why; they require peremptorily new set of networking approach to put through to provide efficacious and successful end-to-end communication. Therefore, an efficient routing approach is needed in MANETs for changing network conditions such as the size of network and partitioning of network. A large number of protocols proposed for MANETs such as DSDV, WRP, CGSR, AODV, CBRP, TORA, ZRP, ZHLS etc. Based on the recent surveys on performance comparisons of all these protocols, it has been seen that the performance of AODV was very good in all network sizes and it performs better in dense mediums and with faster speed. Recent researches on AODV have also figured out that the route repair scheme of AODV needs modifications to make it highly robust protocol for MANETs. This paper gives a modification on local repair of route/link in AODV, if it is broken during communication for MANET and proposes a new route repair scheme namely SI-AODV in order to make up the deficiency of the existing route repair scheme in AODV. The improved route repair scheme concerns about the over head requirement control overhead and end to end delay in transmission. In this improved scheme, nodes are required to keep the next two-hop node address for each route entry in routing table. During route repair, the repairing node use Swarm Intelligence for finding new route for next to next node in the link using ANT based packet forwarding. This ANT based approach will give significant reduction in overhead. The proposed protocol will be highly adaptive, scalable and efficient and mainly reduces endto-end delay in high mobility cases.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1600
9 Application of Microwave Photonics in Electronic Warfare

Simarpreet Kaur Aulakh

Abstract

This paper focuses on microwave photonics and its applications in electronic warfare. More than 20 years ago, the term microwave photonics was used for the first time to describe the study of highspeed photonic devices operating at microwave or millimeterwave frequencies and their use in microwave or photonic system applications. Microwave photonics is the interface between microwaves, ultrafast electronics, and photonic technologies. It is thus addressing an obvious technology gap between photonics and laser techniques aiming at lower frequencies, compared to Masers and high-speed electronics, where wave propagation effects have to be included when going to higher frequencies. Today, microwave photonics is significantly more application and system oriented where typical investigations include, for example, high-speed and microwave signal generation, processing, and conversion as well as the distribution and transmission of microwave signals via broadband optical links. Since the early pioneering experiments, this field of microwave photonics has paved the way for an enabling novel technology with a number of commercially important applications. Microwave photonics technology, as applied to Electronic Warfare (EW) systems, involves the modulation of broadband Radio Frequency (RF) signals onto an optical carrier for transmission through fiber optic links or other guided wave optical devices for signal processing. The optical signals are usually converted back to electrical signals for further processing either in the analogue or digital domains.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1601
10 More Accurate Value Prediction Using Neural Methods

Snigdha M. Mohapatra, Pradipta Kumar Mishra

Abstract

Data dependencies between instructions have traditionally limited the ability of processors to execute instructions in parallel. Data value predictors are used to overcome these dependencies by guessing the outcomes of instruction in a program. Because mispredictions can result in a significant performance decrease, most data value predictors include a confidence estimator that indicates whether a prediction should be used or not. Much research has been done recently in the area of data value prediction as a means of overcoming these data dependencies [7-11, 17-18, 20-21]. The goal of data value prediction is to guess the outcome of an instruction before the instruction is actually executed, allowing future instructions that depend on its outcome to be executed sooner. This paper presents a global approach to confidence estimation in which the prediction accuracy of previous instructions is used to estimate the confidence of the current prediction. Data value prediction is done using data value predictors. Support Vector Machines are used to identify which past instructions affect the accuracy of a prediction and to decide based on their results whether the prediction is likely to be correct or not.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1602
11 FOSS: A Challenge to Proprietary Software

Amandeep Singh, Dr. Pardeep Mittal, Neetu Jha

Abstract

Much More than buzzword open source software is becoming an increasingly important part of the information technology environment. The Adaptation of Open Source Software is widely increasing; some countries have been mandating the use of FOSS/ FLOSS in all government sectors, while other countries are in pipeline for adopting the FOSS strategies. Many program manager, project managers and developers are already familiar with open source, other may wonder how best to use open source in a project environment. This Research Paper describe about open source software, how it is a challenge for the Proprietary software. What are the different alternatives present for Proprietary software? This research paper analyses the factors related to Security of open source software and its advantages over Proprietary Software and how the Implementation of FOSS can reduce the Software ownership cost and maintenance cost.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1603
12 Content Based Image Retrieval Using Multi Features

CH. Amala, K. Lakshmi Narayana

Abstract

In this we propose a new and efficient technique to retrieve the images based on Dominant Color, texture and Pseudo Zernike moments to achieve the higher retrieval efficiency and performance. First an image is uniformly divided into 8 partitions. After the above partition, the centroid of the each partition is selected as its quantized color. Texture of an image is obtained by using steerable filter. Shape feature of an image is obtained by using Pseudo Zernike moments. The combination of the Dominant color, Texture and Pseudo Zernike moments provide a robust feature set for image retrieval. Euclidean distance of color, texture and shape features is used in the retrieving the similar images. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated with results.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1604
13 Worldwide Credentials of Individual by DNA Pattern Using Cloud Computing

Subbulakshmi.S, Praveen Kumar.B, Raj Arvind. S, Sathish Kumar.R

Abstract

The key goal of this paper is to provide a unique global identity to the humanity by analyzing the DNA pattern of the individual. The unique DNA of every soul is generated and a profile of him/ her of those data are stored in a global DNA database which is an authenticated profile. Access rights are provided only to the therapeutic personnel who have registered with DNA cloud. Analogous to voters ID here we design an enhanced electronic identity card for DNA recognition is being issued. This card contains individual‟s delicate report with the DNA code and common details.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1605
14 Performance Evaluation of CPU Scheduling Technique With an Efficient Genetic Algorithm

Rinki Kanger, Parikshit Singla

IJCST/43/1/C-1606
15 Face Recognition by Using Eigenspace

Rajneesh Choudhary

Abstract

There are several methods to identify the images by computer. Each of them gives a performance depending upon their similarity measures as distance, angle, matrices and any others. These similarity measures can be calculated on the images in their original space or on the images projected into a new space. The subspace created by the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix is commonly called as eigenspace. Variations of these spaces or vectors of images produced by them will tell us that what the significance of my algorithm that I am going to proposed is that how clearly we can recognize to our test image and what are the factors associated with it and challenges too.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1607
16 Face Recognition by Using Eigenspace

B.Revathi, P.Raveendra Babu

Abstract

The extreme success of web search engines makes keyword search the most popular search model for ordinary users. As XML is becoming a standard in data representation, it is desirable to support keyword search in XML database. It is a user friendly way to query XML databases since it allows users to pose queries without the knowledge of complex query languages and the database schema. One important problem in XML query processing is twig pattern matching, that is, finding in an XML data tree D all matches that satisfy a specified twig (or path) query pattern Q. In this survey, we review, classify, and compare major techniques for twig pattern matching. Today’s database is associated with interoperability between different domains and applications. This consequently results in the importance of data portability in database. XML format fits the requirements and it has been increasingly used for serving applications across different domains and purposes. However, querying XML document effectively and efficiently is still a challenging issue. This paper discusses query processing issues on XML and reviews proposed solutions for querying XML databases by various authors.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1608
17 Efficient Route Discovery in Location Aided Routing Protocol

Pankaj Dev Chadha, Surabhi Jain

Abstract

An ad hoc routing protocol is a convention, or standard, that controls how nodes decide which way to route packets between computing devices in a mobile Ad-Hoc network .The differences are changing of network topology, limited resources like energy. These days the energy issue has becomes more important, it is required to research about the efficient resource allocation methods optimized in wireless networks. In this paper, we improve LAR (Location-Aided Routing) which is one of the most famous on demand routing methods. This technique uses information about the location of mobile node through GPS technique. The new protocol considers both areas of routing and find path between source to destination by using triangular and rectangular zone. We propose a more efficient method of routing which improves thequality of services and find path between sources to destination.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1609
18 Study and Analysis of Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Anuradha Garg, Ajay Tiwari

Abstract

A mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes creating an ad-hoc network without the support of any centralized structures. These networks introduced a new skill of network establishment and can be well suited for an environment where either the infrastructure is lost or where deploying an infrastructure is not very cost effective. The wireless links in this network are very much error prone and can go down frequently due to mobility of nodes, interference and less infrastructure. Therefore, routing in MANET is a critical task due to highly dynamic environment. In recent years, many routing protocols have been proposed for mobile ad hoc networks and well-known among them are
AODV, DSDV, DSR, TORA, FSR, ZPR and WRP. This research paper gives an overview of these protocols by presenting their characteristics, functionality, benefits, limitations and analysis. The goal is to make observations about how the performance of these protocols can be enhanced.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1610
19 FOAF and Security Aspects of Social Web

L Ramesh Babu, C.V Krishnaveni

Abstract

The Semantic Web is a decentralized forum on which any- one can publish structured data or extend and reuse existing data. Over the past several years, a lot of research has been done on the concept of semantic web. However, the research and implementation of the semantic web has predominantly focused on making data machine-understandable while neglecting personal information and human relationships. The social semantic web is a catchall term for defining and presenting social information such as friendship in a manner that is machine-understandable. This paper will introduce the concept of the social semantic web and the related initiative: the Friend of a Friend (FOAF). The security aspects of social networking are also discussed.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1611
20 A Systematic Approach to Analyse the Power Consumption in Green Cloud Computing Environment

Karanpreet Kaur, Yogesh Kumar

Abstract

The global warming is the greatest environmental challenge today that is the resultant of the carbon emissions. As the result, Energy crisis occurs which leads to the green computing. Green computing requires algorithms and techniques that are needed to be redesigned so that we can have energy efficient systems. The growing need to reduce the energy consumption by large-scale data centers which are used for banking, retail commerce, and gaming services is being faced by the entire world. The proposed approach leads to the better results in making the complete cloud computing resources more energy efficient and economic by using ECTC and Maxutil algorithm in local environment and then comparing it with the one in cloudsim. Finally, the cloud simulator is used to analyze Performance on server as well as the cloudsim and show how concepts from approximation theory can be used to further reduce the computational burden of energy efficiency.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1612
21 Discovery of Jammer Activated in Wireless Sensor Network

Sandeep S P, Jithin Jose Kallada, Parameshachari B D, Muruganantham.C, H S DivakaraMurthy

Abstract

Reactive Jamming Attack has emerged as a great security threat to wireless sensor network, due to its popular extinction to reasonable sensor communications and difficulty to be disclosed and defended. It will stay idle when there is no transmission in the network field and it become active when transmission starts. These attacks are done by trigger nodes, those deactivate whole network from communication, so a new design to deactivate those by efficiently identifying all trigger nodes. Such a trigger identificationprocedure can work as an application-layer service and benefit many existing reactive-jamming defending schemes. This project present an application-layer real-time trigger-identification service for reactive-jamming in wireless sensor networks, which promptly provides the list of trigger-nodes using a lightweight decentralized algorithm, without introducing neither new hardware devices, nor significant message overhead at each sensor node. In this paper the trigger node identification can be done by using algorithm known as trigger detection algorithm. It also finds out the location of the trigger nodes and avoids this trigger node from the routing path by using location based algorithm.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1613
22 Association Rule Mining in Data Mining

Sunita B Aher

Abstract

Association Rule Algorithm is a data mining technique which is used to find the frequent pattern, association or correlation in transaction database. Association rule mining can be used in Basket Data Analysis, Educational Data Mining Supermarket etc. Here in this paper we introduce all association rule algorithms & how these association rule algorithms are useful in voting application. For voting application, we are considering UCI dataset voting. arff. Also we present the result using different association rule algorithms for this dataset.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1614
23 SQL Data Sets With PIVOT Based Indexing for Data Mining Analysis

K Jayaprakash, Venkata Ramana Adari

Abstract

Now a day’s many complex queries are required to prepare data sets for data mining analysis. They require more time and much effort is need for joining tables and aggregate columns. Existing SQL methods have limitations to prepare data sets because they return one column per aggregated group. A data mining project requires many SQL queries, joining tables and aggregating columns. Conventional RDBMS usually manage tables with vertical form. Aggregated columns in a horizontal tabular layout returns set of numbers, instead of one number per row. The system uses one parent table and different child tables, operations are then performed on the data loaded from multiple tables. In general, a significant manual effort is required to build data sets, where a horizontal layout is required. The system use specific methods to generate SQL code to return aggregated columns in a horizontal tabular layout, returning a set of numbers instead of one number per row. This new class of functions is called horizontal aggregations. Horizontal aggregations build data sets with a horizontal de normalized layout which is the standard layout required by most data mining algorithms. The system proposes three fundamental methods to generate data sets for mining analysis.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1615
24 Reinforcement Learning Framework for Routing in WAN

Sri. M. Vamsi Krishna, V. G. L. Narasamba

Abstract

A distributed adaptive opportunistic routing scheme used when network model is not known and no knowledge of network for multihop wireless network which utilizes a reinforcement learning framework to opportunistically route the packets. The established learning framework leads to a stochastic routing scheme to optimally exploits the entire opportunities in the network. The proposed algorithm is a combination of network structure characterized by transmission success probabilities and issues regarding learning and routing in opportunistic context. The performance and throughput of the algorithm is increased by considering probabilistic approaches.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1616
25 SIP: Effective Large Scale Service for Customers Through Server Clusters

Suresh Kumar Kotipalli, Sri. M. Vamsi Krishna

Abstract

Load-balancing algorithms are introduced for distributing Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) which requests to a cluster of SIP servers for different purpose. Here the algorithm used are enhancing both in throughput and response time to different user. This paper build a prototype of our system using Linux operating system. We have used Transaction Least-Work-Left (TLWL) algorithm has got a leading role in and recognizing variability in different parameter in processing costs for different SIP transactions. By combining different features of different algorithm, and provides a good response-time improvements as well we present a detailed analysis to show how our algorithms significantly reduce response time.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1617
26 Distributed Auditing Mechanism and Data Sharing in Cloud

B.Padmaja, CH.TG Ramya

Abstract

Cloud computing technique provide a high range of service the society over the INTERNET. The unique features of clouding computing is that users data are processed remotely, users does not own the machine or operate. Therefore users fear of loosing their data special financial and health data. To overcome this problem we purpose high secure decentralized information accountability frame work to keep track of the users access to the data.This approach enables enclosing our logging mechanism together with users’ data and policies. We introduce the JAR programmable capabilities to both create a dynamic and traveling object, and to ensure that any access to users’ data will trigger authentication and automated logging local to the JARs.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1618
27 Flexible Routing Framework for Interactive Network Applications

B.Devika, M.Umadevi

Abstract

In these days interaction between different network applications are becoming more popular and to improve the speed and data transfer rate delay difference between the multynetworks should minimize. In this paper we propose a Latency Equalization (LEQ) service, which equalizes the perceived latency for all clients participating in an interactive network application. The few routers used in LEQ called as hubs to redirect packets of interactive applications along paths with similar end-to-end delay. The Lossy Difference Aggregator (LDA), a low-overhead mechanism for fine-grain latency and loss measurement that can be cheaply incorporated within routers to achieve the same effect.To formulate this problem we use NP hard technique and to sole it we have used greedy method, through simulations we show that our prosed method significantly reduces the delay and increase the data transfer rate comparatively
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1619
28 Spot: Detecting Compromised Machines in a Network

B.Devi, K.Ramesh

Abstract

Machines used by crackers are the main security threats on the web. They launch various attacks to spread the malware and DDoS. The system used by the crackers called as compromised system and are involved in the spamming activities, commonly known as spam zombies. In this paper, we discuss an system called SPOT which is used for spam zombie detection considering the outgoing messages of a network. SPOT is designed using Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which is a statistical tool based on false positive and false negative error rates. We also concentrated on the performance of SPOT system using e-mail tracing method. Our experiment shows that SPOT is an effective and efficient system in detecting spam zombie in the network. We also compare the performance of SPOT with other method and concluded that SPOT is more efficient than the existing one.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1620
29 Effective Usage of Encrypted Data in Cloud

M.Sanjaypremnadh, B. Shyamala

Abstract

Cloud computing is a data outsourcing service and hence protecting this sensitive cloud data is became challenging task for the researchers. Data should be encrypted before outsourcing. Even though there are many traditional technique to securely search over encrypted data which supports Boolean search which is unable to meet the demand of large number of user. This paper introduced a technique called ranked search which enhances the system by enabling search result relevance ranking and ensure the secure retrieval. It provides a secure searchable index and develops a one –to-many-order preserving mapping technique to protect this sensitive information.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1621
30 Tuple Partition Algorithm for Micro-Data Publishing

K. Sowjanya, CH. Pavani

Abstract

The existing methods could not give a satisfactory result Some has results a loss of information and some does not prevent the membership disclosure. In this paper, we present a new idea slicing, which partitions the data both horizontally and vertically. We justify that slicing preserves the data integrity and gives the member protection even it can handle high dimensional data. This can be used in protection of attribute disclosure and develop an algorithm to obey the ℓ-diversity requirement. Not only providing privacy for micro data, mining the micro data also important. This system uses clusters identified in multiple time periods and identifies trends based on similarities between clusters over time. Our experiments shows that slicing gives a better and effective utility better than the existing one
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1622
31 Minimizing Communication & Computation Overhead By Preventing Jamming Attacks in Wireless Networks

P Chaitanya Vandavasu, B Bangar Naidu

Abstract

This paper, explains the problem of selective jamming attacks in wireless networks. The adversary is active only for a short period of time in this particular attack it selectively targets the messages of high priority with huge information. We described and given many examples regarding the advantages of selective jamming and network performance degradation. We have presented two case studies; a selective attack on TCP and one on routing. We demonstrate that selective jamming attacks can be implementing by performing real-time packet classification at the physical layer. To find and resolve this attack, we introduce three schemes which prevent real-time packet classification. We show that selective jamming attacks can be launched by performing real-time packet classification at the physical layer. We have analyzed the security of this method and compared with the existing methods.
Full Paper

IJCST/43/1/C-1623