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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (IJCST)-VOL III ISSUE IV, VER. 2, OCT. TO DEC., 2012


International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 3 Issue 4, Ver. 2
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   40 IABCF Smarter: An Intelligent Agent-Based Cloud Framework

Amr Tolba, Ahmed Ghoneim

Abstract

Cloud applications that built based on service oriented architecture have dynamic natural behavior. These kinds of applications enable the stakeholders to customize their resources and software’s they need based on the domain they want to build. There are many challenges during these harmonic structures such as how to face the changes of the stakeholder requirements at run-time, how to reconfigure the constituted architecture dynamically to consistency with new resources and software, finally the integrated cost very expensive. To cope with these challenges, we propose a new cloud framework that uses features of multi-agent systems that able to reconfigure the behavior of both allocated resources and software at run-time. The proposed framework is composed of three main parts: the first part is the cloud infrastructure, which extracts the user requirements using special service GUI and generates the user views that match the original requirements, then the second part which has two main functions: parsing the generated view and adapting this view using an agent adapter to face the run-time changes, the third part is the agent utilities that are used by the engines at the second component to reconfigure and continuously adapt the views.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1135
   41 A Study of DBSCAN Algorithms for Spatial Data Clustering Techniques

Dr. Mohammed Ali Hussain, Dr. R. Satya Rajesh, Md. Abdul Ahad

Abstract

Spatial data mining is the application of data mining techniques to spatial data. Data mining in general is the search for hidden patterns that may exist in large databases. Spatial data mining is the discovery of interesting the relationship and characteristics that may exist implicitly in spatial databases. Because of the huge amounts (usually, terabytes) of spatial data that may be obtained from satellite images, medical equipments, video cameras, etc. It is costly and often unrealistic for users to examine spatial data in detail. Spatial data mining aims to automate such a knowledge discovery process. Thus, new and efficient methods are needed to discover knowledge large databases. For this purpose, clustering is one of the most valuable methods in spatial data mining. The main advantage of using clustering is that interesting structures or clusters can be found directly from the data without using any prior knowledge. This paper presents an overview of densitybased methods for spatial data clustering.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1136
   42 Attitude of students towards use of ICT in Higher Education

Satwant Kaur

Abstract

The present paper investigates the attitude of students towards use of ICT in higher education in society. ICTs stand for information and communication technologies and are defined as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information”. The use of information communication technology in various modes like: print medium, radio, telephone, mobile, television, overhead and LCD projector, computer, internet, web services, web portals, eportfolios, face book as a class room tool, moodles, multimedia, space technology, software, on line journals, on-line learning, CCTV, e-learning, e-books, teleconferencing and other computer assisted technologies play a very important role in education for modernizing its input process to get the output in the form of quality oriented teaching. So the use of ICT is essential need of society to cope with inevitable socio – economic changes and to enable more learner-centric ‘constructivist’ learning models. It has become the driving force of change in the new world.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1137
   43 A Survey of Web Matrices for Link Structure Analysis Algorithms

Dr. Nimisha Modi

Abstract

WWW is a huge repository of on-the-click information that is organized as social graph through hyperlinks between them. The spatial locality of a set of web documents reflects their topical locality. Research work in the field of link structure analysis is targeted to improve the efficiency of web information retrieval via exploring the semantic of web document in context of its hyperlinked documents. Basically, link structure analysis algorithms model the web as a graph of social network and represent this graph using various matrices. The measures on the matrices are used to find the importance ranking or to categorize web documents. Each algorithm follows its own perception for a structure of web graph and the matrices that represents the graph. The paper presents the survey on how these algorithms illustrate and derive their web matrices? The approach of algorithms for finding rank vectors for web matrices and practical problems like matrix convergence and uniqueness of rank vector are also reviewed.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1138
   44 Capable Techniques for Online Conformation Linkage

A. Janardhan, Abdul Majeed, Dr. C. Sunil Kumar

Abstract

However, the use of such techniques for online record linkage could pose a tremendous communication bottleneck in a distributed environment (where entity heterogeneity problems are often encountered). In order to resolve this issue, we develop a matching tree, similar to a decision tree, and use it to propose techniques that reduce the communication overhead significantly, while providing matching decisions that are guaranteed to be the same as those obtained using the conventional linkage technique. These techniques have been implemented, and experiments with real-world and synthetic databases show significant reduction in communication overhead. The need to consolidate the information contained in heterogeneous data sources has been widely documented in recent years. In order to accomplish this goal, an organization must resolve several types of heterogeneity problems, especially the entity heterogeneity problem that arises when the same real-world entity type is represented using different identifiers in different data sources. Statistical record linkage techniques could be used for resolving this problem.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1139
   45 Nuts and Bolts of IP Router

P. R. Gundalwar, Dr. V. N. Chavan

Abstract

The most vital element to grown up the Internet is the evolution of IP routers through three generations due to fast emerging technologies in basic electronics discipline. Also, the lions share can be considered by other data communication devices such as repeater, bridge, gateway, NIC and so on. Many of today’s highend routers can be characterized as variants of the third generation architecture, with buffer memory and packet processing logic on the line cards, and a switching fabric with parallel data paths. The key parameter of router design is the transfer of datagrams from a router’s incoming link to outgoing link. The most modern technologies give freedom to use wide range of different routers depending on the need for service. This paper focused on basic and classic router architecture, router function, packet flow in router, and routing process.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1140
   46 An Energetic Cluster-Based Input Organization Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Rubeena Banu, V. Kondal Rao

Abstract

Recent advancement in wireless communication and microelectronics has enabled the design and development of wireless sensor networks with low cost, low energy consumption and high utilization. Many cluster-based wireless sensor network routing protocols have been proposed. However, most of them take little consideration on communication protection, which is important to ensure the network security. In this paper, a lightweight key management approach is presented. Its analysis shows that this approach is an effective solution to the key management of hierarchical clustered wireless sensor networks.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1141
   47 Neural Network Approach for Web Personalization Using Web Usage Mining

Ketki Muzumdar, R. V. Mante, Dr. P. N. Chatur

Abstract

Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for effective Web site management, business and support services, personalization, and network traffic flow analysis and so on. Web usage mining has become very critical for effective Web site management, creating adaptive Web sites, business and support services, personalization, and network traffic flow analysis and so on. Previous study on Web usage mining using a concurrent Clustering, Neural based approach has shown that the usage trend analysis very much depends on the performance of the clustering of the number of requests. In this paper, a novel approach Growing Neural Gas is introduced kind of neural network, in the process of Web Usage Mining to detect user’s patterns. The process details the transformations necessaries to modify the data storage in the Web Servers Log files to an input of GNG.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1142
   48 Design of TCP/IP based Hybrid Covert Channel in Secure Network Communication

Nishant D. Rohankar, A. V. Deorankar, Dr. P. N. Chatur

Abstract

The creation of covert channels in public computer networks can prove an effective means of information hiding and secret communication. A network covert channel is a mechanism that can be used to leak information across a network in violation of a security policy and in a manner that can be difficult to detect. These channels are used for the secret transfer of information. Encryption only protects communication from being decoded by unauthorized parties, whereas covert channels aim to hide the very existence of the communication. Hiding a communication channel between any two end points in the internet and their messages therein is an important research problem due to its security and privacy ramifications. The huge amount of data and vast number of different protocols in the internet seems ideal as a high-bandwidth vehicle for covert communication. The non-transparency in covert channel is also referred to as trapdoor. A trapdoor is unintended design within legitimate communication whose motto is to leak information. Subliminal channel, a variant of covert channel works similarly as network covert channel except that trapdoor is set in cryptographic algorithm. In this paper, we present a study of designing different covert channel and introduce design of hybrid covert channel which is a composition of covert channel with subliminal channel.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1143
   49 Hardware and Software Design for Automotive Security

Gaurav Bansod

Abstract

Today security is a major area of concern. Embedded systems are used in every automotive system. So, attack from outside network, inside networks, bugs, hacking these are common and major concerns for an automotive security. This paper aims at providing hardware and software solution for security in automotive applications. In this paper we propose a hardware model for encryption as well as a software model that can be used for security, particularly in the Automobile domain. In Automobiles 40 to 50 microcontrollers will communicate over a CAN Bus, this communication can be encrypted, it should allow only authenticate controller to communicate inside as well as outside. In vehicle there are large no of microcontrollers called ECU’s which performs specific action depending on information supplied to them by other ECU’s inside vehicle or the other clusters who are outside vehicle and try to communicate. This will create a wide gateway for misusing the information and manipulations. In this paper, hardware approach is presented for security build on GRP algorithm consisting of structures of Multiplexers can be called as Hardware Security Model(HSM) and in software approach by creating a gateways and only allowing authenticate controllers to communicate.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1144
   50 Image Creation Using Coordinate Information

Nimesh D. Jivani, Pooja Shah

Abstract

In today’s world if one thinks of making of image, the idea that comes will be of using digital camera .But if image is not to be used by human for reference and it is to be made for processing than it is better to go for economical way of creating image rather than using digital camera. This paper provides a method to create an image using a distance sensor data that can be processed by computer. This method uses a ping ultra-sensor to get distance information and provide it to processor to create an image. Processor creates an image which is black & white. This image is sufficient to process for some system like Home Surveillance System. This method converts distance into according black & white pixel value ranging from 0-255. Each pixel value gives accurate information about object in form of color value.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1145
   51 Software Threat Modeling: Types and Techniques

Pooja Rani, Dalwinder Singh Salaria

Abstract

Security plays a major role in the development of secure software systems. Security should be integrated in all stages of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Attacks on the vulnerable software are continuously increasing day by day. Most of the attacks are result of insecure configuration of software. Therefore, software developers should design the software having security in mind and should reduce the security flaws in the early stages of software development life cycle so that secure software is developed. In this paper, we present the review of some approaches used to introduce and fix the threats along advantages and disadvantages. Statistical techniques, Neural network, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithm and Neuro- Fuzzy are some techniques used for software threat modeling.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1146
   52 A Survey on Opensource Private Cloud Platforms

Mayur S. Patil

Abstract

Unleashing and making the cloud platform as candid, open source private cloud is playing crucial role in this development of academic as well as industrial needs. Their significant focus is on sandbox environment for IaaS platform. But behind the scenes, presence of the powerful architecture has trivial role to handle bucket loads of data. The Open Stack, Nimbus, Eucalyptus and Open Nebula are deriving the power of integration successor with deploying environment making Private cloud trustworthy for user as well as developers. This survey paper endeavors readers with the current trends and collective overview of qualitative features of these platforms. It is also included OpenStack discussion with other respective cloud architectures. Alongside with this, architectural capabilities with oblations & the goals for Standard Cloud Architecture as well as future scope for further improvements are also discussed.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1147
   53 Maelstrom: Translucent Error Rectification for Interaction between Data Centers

Mamatha Vani, Abdul Majeed, Dr. C. Sunil Kumar

Abstract

Maelstrom is an edge appliance that masks packet loss transparently and quickly from intercluster protocols, aggregating traffic for high-speed encoding and using a new forward error correction scheme to handle bursty loss.The global network of data centers is emerging as an important distributed systems paradigm— commodity clusters running high-performance applications, connected by high-speed “lambda” networks across hundreds of milliseconds of network latency. Packet loss on long-haul networks can cripple applications and protocols: A loss rate as low as 0.1% is sufficient to reduce TCP/IP throughput by an order of magnitude on a 1-Gb/s link with 50-ms one-way latency. Index Terms—Data centers, forward error correction (FEC), TCP/ IP.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1148
   54 Multiple Facial Soft Biometrics for Person Identification System

A. Prakash, Dr. Rajeswari Mukesh

Abstract

This work introduces the idea of using more than one facial soft biometrics for person verification and identification. Soft traits are useful in fast and enrolment free biometric analysis, even in the absence of consent and cooperation of the surveillance subject. In conjunction with the proposed system design and detection algorithms, we also proceed to shed some light on the statistical properties of different parameters that are pertinent to the proposed system, as well as provide insight on general design aspects in soft biometric systems, and different aspects regarding efficient resource allocation.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1149
   55 The Statistical Capable Identical Algorithm for Firewalls

M. Shalini, Abdul Majeed, Dr. C. Sunil Kumar

Abstract

Since firewalls need to filter all the traffic crossing the network perimeter, they should be able to sustain a very high throughput, or risk becoming a bottleneck. Firewall packet matching can be viewed as a point location problem: Each packet (point) has 5 fields (dimensions), which need to be checked against every firewall rule in order to find the first matching rule. Thus, algorithms from computational geometry can be applied. In this paper we consider a classical algorithm that we adapted to the firewall domain. We call the resulting algorithm “Geometric Efficient Matching” (GEM). The GEM algorithm enjoys a logarithmic matching time performance. However, the algorithm’s theoretical worst-case space complexity is O(n4 ) for a rule-base with n rules. Because of this perceived high space complexity, GEM-like algorithms were rejected as impractical by earlier works. Contrary to this conclusion, this paper shows that GEM is actually an excellent choice.Based on statistics from real firewall rule-bases, we created a Perimeter rules model that generates random, but non-uniform, rule- bases. We evaluated GEM via extensive simulation using the Perimeter rules model. Our simulations show that on such rulebases, GEM uses near linear space, and only needs approximately 13MB of space for rule-bases of 5,000 rules. Moreover, with use of additional space improving heuristics, we have been able to reduce the space requirement to 2-3MB for 5,000 rules.But most importantly, we integrated GEM into the code of the Linux iptables open-source firewall, and tested it on real traffic loads. Our GEM-iptables implementation managed to filter over 30,000 packets-per-second on a standard PC, even with 10,000 rules. Therefore, we believe that GEM is an efficient, and practical, algorithm for firewall packet matching.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1150
   56 Site-Based Detachment and Redetachment Techniques for Coextending Page Rank Computation

M.Praveena, T.Y. Srinivasarao, Dr. P. Harini

Abstract

The Page Rank design is an important component in effective intricacy search. A power method formulation, which efficiently handles the problem of dangling pages, is investigated for parallelization of Page Rank computation. We claim that hyper graph partitioning with multiple constraints and fixed vertices should be implemented using direct K-way refinement, instead of the widely adopted recursive bisection paradigm. Hence, the Page Rank computation, which is frequently chime, must be performed in coextending with high-efficiency and low-preprocessing overhead while considering the initial distributed nature of the intricacy matrices We first investigate the application of state-ofthe- art sparse matrix partitioning models in order toattain high efficiency in parallel Page Rank computations with a particular focus on reducing the preprocessing overhead they introduce. We also propose an efficient parallelization scheme for matrixvector multiplies in order to avoid possible communication due to the pages without in-links. Second, we consider the more astute scenario of starting with an initially distributed data and extend our designs to cover the Redetachment of such data for efficient Page Rank computation. Experimental results on provedent datasets validate the performance of theproposedmodels.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1151
   57 Web based measure of semantic similarity between words

Ankush Maind, A.V. Deorankar, Dr. Prashant Chatur

Abstract

Semantic similarity measures between words play an important role in relation extraction, community mining, document clustering, and automatic metadata extraction. For a computer to decide the semantic similarity, it should understand the semantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it cannot understand the semantics. So always an attempt is made to represent the semantics as syntax. There are various methods proposed to find the semantic similarity between words. Some of these methods have used the precompiled databases like WordNet and Brown Corpus. Some are based on Web Search Engine. In this paper we have described the methods based on the web search engine. Along with this we have compared the all methods on the basis of performance and their limitation. From the study, Experimental result on Miller-Charles benchmark dataset show that the method by the Danushka Bollegala, Yutaka Matsuo, and Mitsuru Ishizuka based on web search engine outperforms all the existing semantic similarity measures by a wide margin, achieving a correlation coefficient of 0.87.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1152
   58 Secure and conflict-free Address Allocation Scheme in MANET

Avinav Pathak, Anju Shukla, Akash Sharma

Abstract

A Mobile ad-hoc Network (MANET) consists of a set of mobile nodes communicating with each other via wireless links. Due to rapid change in topology of MANET, address allocation is not possible through centralized servers. So some auto configuration schemes are proposed. In this paper we proposed conflict free address allocation scheme. We also proposed some security procedures that should be followed by a requester node and cluster head for efficient allocation of address.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1153
   59 An Inventory Model for a Deteriorating Items With Exponential Demand Under Inflation

Avikar, Arun Kumar Tomer, Abhilash Sharma

Abstract

We have undertaken to extend the idea of Hou by taking Weibull form of three parameter deterioration. This is the most practical form of deterioration as it gives scope to consider various forms of deterioration. Also, Hou has considered stock-dependent demand, which although is very practical, but becomes unrealistic when taken in the context of some products such electronic equipments amd mobile phones. The demand of such products do not depend on the amount stocked but keeps on increasing with time, due to increasing dependence of people on technology. Hence, in this paper, we have taken exponential demand and studied the effects of inflation on a weibull distribution deteriorating inventory.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1154
   60 Design & Characterization of SHA-1 IP Core

Remya K Manohar, Sruthi Prasad P V, Nandakumar. R

Abstract

Message authentication is an important technique in information security to verify that whether the communicating entity is the one that it claims to be and have not been altered. Cryptographic hash functions are very important for securing the information against the unspecified attacks. They are used to compress and encrypt large messages in to a smaller message digest. SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm – 1) is one implementation of such hash functions that takes in messages of size less than 264 bits and produces a 160 bit message digest. Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) has been used in Internet Protocol Security (IPSEC). This paper addresses the design, simulation and characterization of a reusable soft IP Core for SHA-1 computer.The proposed design was modeled using Verilog HDL and also prototype on ALTERA® platform FPGA.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1155
   61 Fuzzy Logic: Fuzzy Rules and Decisions involving in Fuzzyfication and Defuzzyfication processes

Nikhil Ranjan, Anuj Kumar Singh, Vaibhav Kumar, Yousuf Haider

Abstract

Fuzzy logic brings an essential set of tools for creating, modifying, and visualizing fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based systems. Fuzzy logic allows for approximate values and inferences as well as incomplete or ambiguous data i.e. fuzzy data as opposed to only relying on crisp data. In this paper we mainly focus on the fuzzy sets, operations, decisions and their applications that can be
performed.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1156
   62 Characterization of Error Correction IP Core for SDRAM Controller

Lakshmi V V V Prasad K, Pitcheswara Rao Nelapati, Nandakumar. R

Abstract

This paper describes an error-correcting code (ECC) block for use with the DDR and DDR2 SDRAM controller Cores. The ECC block comprises an encoder and a decoder cum corrector, which can detect and correct single-bit errors and detect double-bit errors. It is a cost-efficient solution that is fast, has a low latency, no detrimental effect on system performance, and uses minimal system resources. The ECC block uses an 8-bit ECC for each 64-bit message. Fully parameterized Hamming code ECC block with 8-bit ECC for 64-bit message Configurable latency of 1 or 2 clock delay during writes and 2 or 3 clock delay during reads. Detect any single- and double bit error on the first clock and correct any detected single-bit errors on the second clock. Index Terms—Error Correction, Hamming code, SEC-DED, Parity, Encoding, Syndrome, Mask, Decoding.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1157
   63 Steganography Approach for Hiding Encryption Data

B. Uppalaiah, V. Sunitha, N. L. Manasa, S. V. Sridhar, A. Srinivas

Abstract

In the multimedia steganocryptic system, the message will first be encrypted using public key encryption algorithm, and then this encrypted data will be hidden into an image file thus accomplishing both data encoding and hiding. The multimedia data will be used to provide the cover for the information. Steganography is one of the most secure forms available today. It is most commonly implemented in image files. However embedding data into image changes its color frequencies in a predictable way. To overcome this predictability, we propose the concept of multiple cryptography where the data will be encrypted into a cipher and the cipher will be hidden into a multimedia image file in encrypted format. We shall use traditional cryptographic techniques to achieve data encryption and Steganography algorithms will be used to hide the encrypted data.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1158
   64 Design and Presentation Investigation of Mobility Management Schemes Based on Indicator Forwarding for Wireless Mesh Networks

K. Dhanalakshmi, Abdul Majeed, Dr. C. Sunil Kumar

Abstract

We demonstrate that there exists an optimal threshold of the forwarding chain length, given a set of parameters characterizing the specific mobility and service patterns of a mobile user. We also demonstrate that our schemes yield significantly better performance than schemes that apply a static threshold to all mobile users. A comparative analysis shows that our pointer forwarding schemes outperform routing-based mobility management protocols for WMNs, especially for mobile Internet applications characterized by large traffic asymmetry for which the downlink packet arrival rate is much higher than the uplink packet arrival rate. We propose efficient mobility management schemes based on pointer forwarding for wireless mesh networks (WMNs) with the objective to reduce the overall network traffic incurred by mobility management and packet delivery. The proposed schemes are peruser- based, i.e., the optimal threshold of the forwarding chain length that minimizes the overall network traffic is dynamically determined for each individual mobile user, based on the user’s specific mobility and service patterns. We develop analytical models based on stochastic Petri nets to evaluate the performance of the proposed schemes.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1159
   65 Comparison of Load Balancing Algorithms in Cloud Computing

Sanyogita Manhas, Jawahar Thakur

Abstract

Cloud computing is an emerging area in computing research and industry today. It has changed the shape of the distributed systems completely. There is a requirement to access nodes on the network. Many time it happens that there is more load on one node than others. For efficient working of cloud computing load balancing becomes essential. Load balancing is the process of improving the performance of a parallel and distributed system through the redistribution of load among the computational resources. All load balancing methods are designed to spread the load on resources equally and maximize their utilization while minimizing the total task execution time. In this paper Throttled Load Balancer ,Active Monitoring Load Balancer and Service Broker Algorithm, algorithms for Load Balancing , in cloud computing are discussed and are compared in terms of their response time and the best algorithm is marked.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1160
   66 Efficient Routing of Uncertainty Results Based on Concept Hierarchies

S. Naveen Kumar, Abdul Majeed, Dr. C. Sunil Kumar

Abstract

First, the query results are organized into a navigation tree. At each node expansion step, BioNav reveals only a small subset of the concept nodes, selected such that the expected user navigation cost is minimized. In contrast, previous works expand the hierarchy in a predefined static manner, without navigation cost modeling. Search queries on biomedical databases, such as PubMed, often return a large number of results, only a small subset of which is relevant to the user. Ranking and categorization, which can also be combined, have been proposed to alleviate this information overload problem. Results categorization for biomedical databases is the focus of this work. A natural way to organize biomedical citations is according to their MeSH annotations. MeSH is a comprehensive concept hierarchy used by PubMed. In this paper, we present the BioNav system, a novel search interface that enables the user to navigate large number of query results by organizing them using the MeSH concept hierarchy. We show that the problem of selecting the best concepts to reveal at each node expansion is NP-complete and propose an efficient heuristic as well as a feasible optimal algorithm for relatively small trees. We show experimentally that BioNav outperforms state-of-the-art categorization systems by up to an order of magnitude, with respect to the user navigation cost. BioNav for the MEDLINE database is available at http:// db.cse.buffalo.edu/bionav.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1161
   67 Content Based Image Retrieval Using Principle Component Analysis

Sheeba Abraham, J. Bethanney Janney, Sindu Divakaran

Abstract

With the increasing availability of digital images, automatic image retrieval tools provide an efficient means for users to navigate through them. Even though traditional methods allow the user to post queries and obtain results, the retrieval accuracy is severely limited because of the inherent complexity of the images for users’ to describe exactly. The more recent relevance feedback approach, on the other hand, reduces the needs for a user to provide accurate initial queries by estimating the user’s ideal query using the positive and negative examples given by the user. The current relevance feedback based systems estimate the ideal query parameters on only the low-level image features such as color, texture, and shape. These systems work well if the feature vectors can capture the essence of the query. With a few positive and negative examples, the relevance feedback system will be able to return reasonably accurate results. On the other hand, if the user is searching for a specific object that cannot be sufficiently represented by combinations of available feature vectors, these relevance feedback systems will not return many relevant results even with a large number of user feedbacks. To address the limitations of the current relevance feedback systems, we propose a framework that performs relevance feedback on both the images’ semantic contents represented by keywords and the low-level feature vectors such as color, texture, and shape. Problems with traditional methods of image indexing have led to the rise of interest in techniques for retrieving images on the basis of automatically-derived features such as colour, texture and shape – a technology now generally referred to as Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). After a decade of intensive research, CBIR technology is now beginning to move out of the laboratory and into the marketplace The aim of this report is to clarify some of the issues raised by this new technology, by reviewing its current capabilities and limitations, and its potential usefulness to users in higher education and elsewhere.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/2/A-1162
   68 Clustering of Mixed Variety of Data using D&C Approach (Categorical, Numeric, Binary, Ordinal, and Nominal, Ratio-Scaled Datum)

Rohit Rastogi, Abhishek Jha, Poonam Maher, Ashok Singh

Abstract

Many algorithms for clustering focus on numerical data whose inherent geometric properties can be exploited naturally to define distance functions or dissimilarities between data points. However, in most of the cases data in the real life application is categorical, where attribute values cannot be naturally ordered as numerical values. Due to the different characteristics of two or more kinds of data, attempts to develop criteria functions for mixed data have been not very successful. In this research, we propose a novel Divide-Conquer and combine technique with greedy characteristics for optimal solutions to solve the above said problem. Algorithm can be defined recursive in nature. First, the original mixed dataset is divided into several subproblems as n sub-datasets, which are similar to the original sub problems but smaller in size. Solve these sub problems for (n=2,3 or 4 depending on number of available data sets in our data tuples) recursively and then combine these solutions to create a solution to the original problem. It may be the true and real categorical dataset and-or the pure numeric dataset or exponentially distributed ratio scaled dataset or binary data set on any real life application with yes or no form. Next, available clustering algorithms designed for different types of datasets are employed to produce corresponding clusters. Finally, the clustering results on the categorical and other available datasets are combined as a categorical dataset, on which the unsupervised learning algorithm for categorical dataset is employed to get the final output. Main contribution in this research is to provide an algorithm framework for the mixed attributes clustering problem, in which already available clustering algorithms can be easily amalgamated.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1163
   69 Storage and Retrieval of Software Components Using Multiple Search Criteria

Arpita Singla, Preetinder Kaur Mann, Vaneet Kaur

Abstract

Software reuse is emerging as an important paradigm and has provided competitive and various other benefits like increased product quality, decreased product cost and schedule to organizations. In Software reuse a common set of reusable software assets like code, designs, specifications, architectures and documentation act as base for subsequent similar products in a given functional domain. In this paper we focuses on the implementation of software tool with a new integrated classification scheme to make classification build of software components and effective software reuse repositories to facilitate retrieval of software components depending upon user requirements using multiple search criteria within the repository which in turn increases the repository navigation and search performance and result in system.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1164
   70 Online Attack Aware Aggregation With Generative Facts Issue Modeling

K. Nalini, Abdul Majeed, Dr. C. Sunil Kumar

Abstract

Meta-alerts is the basis for reporting to security experts or for communication within a distributed intrusion detection system. With three benchmark data sets, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve reduction rates of up to 99.96 percent while the number of missing meta-alerts is extremely low. In addition, meta-alerts are generated with a delay of typically only a few seconds after observing the first alert belonging to a new attack instance. Metaalerts can be generated for the clusters that contain all the relevant information whereas the amount of data (i.e., alerts) can be reduced substantially. Intrusion detection can be used to identify the types of hackers attempting to tress pass into the system, thus we use the concept of alerts to cluster the types of attacks and the further counter measures, by using the concept of firewalls. . In addition, even low rates of false alerts could easily result in a high total number of false alerts if thousands of network packets or log file entries are inspected.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1165
   71 Enhanced UNIX File System: A Solution
to Anonymous Modification

Bhavik Shah, Raj Dave, Siddhant Arya, Vishesh Tanksale

Abstract

UNIX is the most widely used operating system in the industry finding application not only in standalone systems but also in core networked systems. Constantly growing in size and power, UNIX and several flavors of UNIX-like operating systems are responsible for handling a majority of the industry needs. All the major servers in the world are derived from one or the other flavor of UNIX operating system. The UNIX File System (UFS) is the native file system used by many UNIX and UNIX-like operating systems. However, the current file system implementation of UFS does not remember which user last modified a file and thus allow anonymous modification. The paper presents a new field named muid. The file system will store the User Id of the user, modifying a file, in the proposed field. The approach relies on storing the muid field on the disk with other metadata associated with every file. Users or administrators can find out which user last modified a file by firing a simple command (the well-known ls command). We also report in this paper the prototype implementation for the new field in a FreeBSD kernel.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1166
   72 Distance Energy Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Gurinder Singh, Puneet Mehta

Abstract

The wireless sensors networks consume energy in both sensing the data & transmitting the sensed data. The wireless sensor networks have to monitor the data in the remote areas where the human existence is not possible so energy efficient protocols are required which can minimized the energy consumption & increase the lifetime of the network. In this paper we have discussed about the low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol, NEAP protocol and DEEP protocol with the concept of distance factor b/w base station (sink) and nodes. Our result shows that the LEACH using the concept of residual energy and distance between the base station and nodes can improve the lifetime of the network.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1167
   73 Software Effort Estimation: Various Techniques-A Review

Harwinder Kaur, Dalwinder Singh Salaria

Abstract

Rapid growth of software industry leads to need of new technologies. Software effort estimation is one of the areas that need more concentration. Exact estimation is always a challenging task. Effort Estimation techniques are broadly classified into algorithmic and non-algorithmic techniques. In this paper we present the review of some popular estimation techniques along with their pros and cons. SLIM, COCOMO, ESTIMAC, Function point, expert estimator, fuzzy logic, genetic programming, and analogy, neural are some effort estimation techniques.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1168
   74 Optimized Clustering for Personal Name Information Extraction

G. Naveen Sundar, Teena A. Sunny

Abstract

The person name information extraction system generally mines the person in query and their specific personal featured information(occupation, DOBetc). One issue anticipated in such system includes ambiguity of person names and feature extractions. To resolve this issue we employ agglomerative clustering that that will cluster features that share a similarity matrix and thus helps to find the target person and relevant personal details.This paper clearly portrays how this clustering technique is an effective measure amongst other.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1169
   75 Comcrypt : An Encryption Algorithm based on Vernam Cipher

Maulik Kothari, Manthan Shah, Meet Malde, Ashutosh Wad

Abstract

In today’s information age, information sharing and transfer has increased exponentially. Security, integrity, non-repudiation, confidentiality and authentication services are the most important factors in information security. Of all the methods of encryption ever devised, only one has been mathematically proved to be completely secure .It is called the Vernam cipher or one time pad. The worth of all other ciphers is based on computational security. If a cipher is computationally secure this means the probability of cracking the encryption key using current computational technology and algorithms within a reasonable time is supposedly extremely small, yet not impossible. In theory, every cryptographic algorithm except the Vernam Cipher can be broken given enough cipher text and time. This is where COMCRYPT comes into picture. COMCRYPT is an encryption algorithm, which has been formulated on the lines of Vernam cipher. When a passphrase is taken from the user, a scrambling algorithm is implemented on it, which generates two more random keys. These keys are superimposed on each other and then XOR to the text to produce the cipher text. This algorithm was monitored on different plaintexts, and it was found that this method was almost unbreakable. This method supports multiple encryption and multiple decryption. A minor change in the text key will change the cipher text quite a lot.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1170
   76 Design and Characterization of MD5 IP Core

Sreeraj C, Sarath K Kumar, R Nandakumar

Abstract

This paper addresses the Design and Charecterization of a reusable IP Core for MD5 message digest algorithm, a prominent cryptographic hash function. The MD5, first proposed by R. Rivest in 1992, is a secure hash algorithm in cryptography that produces a 128-bit message digest from an input message of arbitrary length. It was proposed as one of the authentication option in IPv6.The MD5 Core is modeled in Verilog HDL and functionally simulated using Modelsim® SE, followed by prototyping using reconfigurable architecture.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1171
   77 Efficient Content Extraction Using Hybrid Technique

G. Naveen Sundar, Sheba Gaikwad

Abstract

Content extraction is the process of identifying the main content or removing the additional contents. The main problem in extracting the content from the web page is the newer architecture of web pages and the diversity in the structure of web pages. Many content extraction strategies are based on DOM tree representation, feature extraction or tag ratios of HTML web page and estimating useful content from it. This paper describes a comparative study on various content extraction algorithms.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1172
   78 Sustaining Capable and Scalable Multicasting Under Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Mounika Gade, N.Usha Rani

Abstract

The position information is used to guide the zone structure building, multicast tree construction and multicast packet forwarding, which efficiently reduces the overhead for route searching and tree structure maintenance. Several strategies have been proposed to further improve the efficiency of the protocol, for example, introducing the concept of zone depth for building an optimal tree structure and integrating the location search of group members with the hierarchical group membership management. Finally, we design a scheme to handle empty zone problem faced by most routing protocols using a zone structure. The scalability and the efficiency of EGMP are evaluated through simulations and quantitative analysis. Group communications are important in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). Multicast is an efficient method for implementing group communications. However, it is challenging to implement efficient and scalable multicast in MANET due to the difficulty in group membership management and multicast packet forwarding over a dynamic topology. We propose a novel Efficient Geographic Multicast Protocol (EGMP). EGMP uses a virtual-zone-based structure to implement scalable and efficient group membership management. A network-wide zone-based bi-directional tree is constructed to achieve more efficient membership management and multicast delivery. Our simulation results demonstrate that EGMP has high packet delivery ratio, and low control overhead and multicast group joining delay under all test scenarios, and is scalable to both group size and network size. Compared to Scalable Position-Based Multicast (SPBM) [20], EGMP has significantly lower control overhead, data transmission overhead, and multicast group joining delay.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1173
   79 Advanced Framework for Dynamic Allocation of Resources for Optimal Data Processing in the Cloud

M. Sudhakar Reddy, B.R. Sarath Kumar

Abstract

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (Iaas) is one of the emerging services provided by the Cloud Companies. Today there are so many frameworks for parallel data processing to provide Infrastructureas- a-Service. Some of these framwork use static, homogeneous resource allocation technique, which can’t satisfy dynamic nature of cloud computing. Some of the new frameworks like Nephele overcome these drawbacks by using Dynamic resource allocation but still contain some setbacks like Resource under utilization. Nephele doesn’t de allocate the Virtual Machine-(VM) which contains some intermediate results even it completed its execution to provide those results to other Virtual machines. Our new framework introduces Alternative Virtual Machine (AVM) to store intermediate results so wastage of resources can be reduced.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1174
   80 Scheduling and Load Balancing Issues in Cloud Computing: A Research Survey

Indu Gandotra, Pawanesh Abrol

Abstract

Cloud computing is an internet based network system in which a large number of scalable computing resources are made available as a service over the internet to users. The resources connected over larger geographical areas physical must be efficiently utilized. However, as the cloud computing environment is growing in number and kinds of services being provided, the need of efficient load balancing and scheduling is also significantly increasing. The task scheduling and resource management are closely related to the efficiency of the whole cloud computing facilities. Scheduling the available resources under clouding computing environment is an important issue because of the high scalability and heterogeneity of computing resources. Different factors which influence the efficiency of cloud computing scheduling algorithms include throughput, latency, turnaround, response time, fairness etc. In this research paper, various issues related to resource-scheduling algorithm are identified and analyzed. Various parameters like cost, time, and energy utilization etc. have been identified. On the basis of these parameters, the efficiencies of different scheduling algorithms have been studied in relation to load balance. This study shall help to identify the relevant and significant parameters for load balancing scheduling techniques in cloud computing that become the basis for further research work in this domain.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1175
   81 Towards Consistent Information Transfer for Decidedly Active Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

R.Radhika, N.Usha Rani

Abstract

When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time.This paper addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner. Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. Driven by this issue, we propose an efficient Position based Opportunistic Routing protocol (POR) which takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. In case of communication hole, a Virtual Destination based Void Handling (VDVH) scheme is further proposed to work together with POR. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that POR achieves excellent performance even under high node mobility with acceptable overhead and the new void handling scheme also works well.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1176
   82 Genetic Optimization of Hybrid Load Balancing Algorithm for Grid Computing Environment

Jyoti Prakash, Satya Prakash Sahoo, Manas Ranjan Kabat

Abstract

Recent advances in internet technology has lead to the formation of distributed computing environment, geographically spreading over the globe for solving high-end computational tasks. To increase the potential of such large-scale distributed systems, it requires proper load-balancing algorithm arises. Since the problem of Load Balancing is NP-Complete, therefore it requires heuristic or approximation algorithm. In this paper, we have conducted an experimental verification of Genetic Optimization of the Hybrid Load Balancing Algorithm, by considering Value Function as optimization parameter. With throughput as performance parameter, we have evaluated the algorithm on a grid based on MetaCentrum Project (Czech Republic National Grid Infrastructure). Further, we have used a Check Point Based Recovery Technique in establishing the reliability of the grid. Keywords: Grid Computing, Genetic Algorithms, Bio-inspired Computing, Load Balancing, High Performance Computing
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IJCST/34/2/A-1177
   83 Alert Aggregation and Generating Reports in Intrusion Detection Systems

Mohini Rajyalakshmi

Abstract

Now a day’s Intrusion Detection Systems are used in many areas. It became an important tool for information security. Generally Intrusion Detection Systems are used to monitor the network, find the attacks and generate the reports to the administrator in system logs. In this paper we propose a technique i.e., grouping the similar type of alerts and generate meta-alert, choosing response mechanism (block IP, shutdown etc) for user whenever an attack is generated and this response information is stored in log files.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1178
   84 Adaptable Rollback Improvement in Active Heterogeneous Web Computing

B. Priyanka, V. Kondal Rao

Abstract

This paper presents two fault-tolerance mechanisms called Theft-Induced Checkpointing and Systematic Event Logging. These are transparent protocols capable of overcoming problems associated with both benign faults, i.e., crash faults, and node or subnet volatilityLarge applications executing on Grid or cluster architectures consisting of hundreds or thousands of computational nodes create problems with respect to reliability. The lowcost protocols offer the capability of controlling or bounding the overhead. A formal cost model is presented, followed by an experimental evaluation. It is shown that the overhead of the protocol is very small, and the maximum work lost by a crashed process is small and bounded. The source of the problems are node failures and the need for dynamic configuration over extensive runtime.. Specifically, the protocols base the state of the execution on a dataflow graph, allowing for efficient recovery in dynamic heterogeneous systems as well as multithreaded applications. By allowing recovery even under different numbers of processors, the approaches are especially suitable for applications with a need for adaptive or reactionary configuration control.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1179
   85 Approaches for Software Fault Prediction

Malkit Singh, Dalwinder Singh Salaria

Abstract

In Software engineering, there are a plenty of prediction approaches used for several purposes like fault prediction, security prediction, effort prediction, correction cost prediction, reusability prediction, test effort prediction and quality prediction. These approaches help to minimize the cost of testing which minimizes the cost of the project. In this paper, we study software fault prediction techniques to find the software defects at an early stage of software development life cycle. The methods, metrics and datasets are used to find the fault-proneness of software. The various techniques like linear regression, logistic regression, negative binomial regression, fuzzy subtractive clustering, radial basis function (RBF) network, multilayer perceptron, support vector machine, artificial neural networks, instance-based reasoning, Bayesian-belief networks, decision trees, rule induction, multi-linear regression models, multivariate models, back propagation neural Network (BPN), probabilistic neural network (PNN), expert estimation and nearest neighbor are used to predict the fault proneness of the software. Each of these has its own advantages and disadvantages.
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IJCST/34/2/A-1180