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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (IJCST)-VOL III ISSUE IV, VER. 1, OCT. TO DEC., 2012


International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 3 Issue 4, Ver. 1
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   1 Characteristics Based Incremental Clustering Algorithm for Online Data

Ankita Choubey, Dr. Sadhna K. Mishra

Abstract

Clustering of data has been of intense need for any organization in the past and various researchers in the field of data mining has been continuously working to find efficient and accurate tools and algorithms for the same. From the proliferation of internet and network applications is pressing the same need more deeply and it is becoming more and more necessary for providing such algorithms by the researchers of data mining. Researchers have been working continuously and finding incremental clustering mechanism to be best suitable for online data. Incremental clustering algorithm clusters data in dynamic form. The database is assumed to be clustered initially, and every new element is added as without need of changing existing clustered database. Basing on the properties of the information, the cluster size will increase incrementally and the information is transferred following an efficient clustering algorithm for mining in a data warehousing environment. Incremental Clustering requires initial clusters to be decided in advance i.e. they must pre exist for processing. If the initial clusters are to be fixed, then there are several ways it can be achieved. This work is proposing a dynamic and novice algorithm for deciding the initial clusters dynamically. In this work an offer is being made to create clusters dynamically after taking a few important characteristics from the user related with database. The characteristics inputted by the user shall be used as parameters to decide the initial clusters and adjusting clusters during processing. Incremental clustering will add the data into various initial clusters and can divide the clusters into more clusters if specific characteristics are matched more nearly.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/1/
A-1096
   2 A Survey Centered on Recent Progress on Power Saving Algorithms and Power Aware Techniques for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

N. Kumar, Dr. C. Suresh Gnana Dhass

Abstract

The process of wireless networks in the applications like transferring video files is subjected to dual constraints. Both minimization of power and other QoS requirements like delay, throughputs are have to be take care properly. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks are more perceptive to these issues where each mobile device is active like a router and consequently, routing delay adds considerably to overall end-to-end delay. This paper presents a survey on power efficient routing protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. This survey centered on recent progress on power saving algorithms. In addition we suggest one power aware technique which will reduce power consumption as well as increase the lifetime of node and network.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1097
   3 Dynamic Software Watermarking

D. Seetha Mahalaxmi, Dr. S. Viswanadha Raju, Dr. A. Vinay Babu

Abstract

With the development of Internet, Information transfer from one media to other media became very common. The information transfer can be the data, software, or programs, and so on. In this scenario, a lot of attacks are possible. In order to protect the software from attacks various techniques were identified such as static software watermarking and Dynamic software watermarking.In this paper various Dynamic Software Watermarking algorithms were discussed and finally a new approach known as version based watermark was given.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1098
   4 Application of Management Information Systems for Business Decision Making: Review, Study and Suggestions

Dr. Mini Amit Arrawatia, Pankaj Meel

Abstract

The part of Management Information Systems is defined and scrutinized in light of its competency for decision making. Decision making process and its bearing on top brass in a business organization is described with prominence on automated decision making. Confines and challenges of Management Information Systems are discoursed and a set of six endorsements proposed for swelling the effectiveness of MIS in the decision making process.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1099
   5 Design and Analysis on Efficient Broadcast Authentication Protocols for Wireless Sensor Netwoks

M. Rameshkumar, Dr. C. Suresh Gnana Dhass

Abstract

A broadcast authentication mechanism is important in wireless sensor networks, assuring receivers of a packet’s validity. To
provide authentication, some researchers utilize one way key chains and delayed disclosure of keys; however, such an approach requires time synchronization and delayed authentication. Another technique uses one-time signature schemes. Unfortunately, such schemes suffer from large key sizes and limited number of uses per key. To cope with these problems, we propose an efficient, one-time signature-based broadcast authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks that reduces storage usage and includes a re-keying mechanism.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1100
   6 Survey on Modified Power Consumption Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

N. Kumar, Dr. C. Suresh Gnana Dhass

Abstract

A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a self configuring network composed of mobile nodes without any fixed infrastructure. A very important and necessary issue for mobile ad-hoc networks is to find the route between source and destination that is a major technical challenge due to the dynamic topology of the network. Routing protocols for MANETs could be differing depending on the application and network architecture. This paper presents a survey on energy efficient routing protocols for wireless Ad-Hoc networks. Survey focus on recent development and modifications in this widely used field. This discussion is centered on proposed power saving algorithms. Besides it we will discuss about the conventional protocols and also see how these are modified to make these protocols energy efficient.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1101
   7 Expeditious Parallel Data Processing in the Cloud by Employing Propellant Resource Allocation

V. Anitha, Dr. P. Harini

Abstract

In recent years ad-hoc parallel data processing has emerged to be one of the killer applications for Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) clouds. Major Cloud computing companies have started to integrate frameworks for parallel data processing in their product portfolio, making it easy for customers to access these services and to deploy their programs. However, the processing frameworks which are currently used have been designed for static, homogeneous cluster setups and disregard the particular nature of a cloud. Consequently, the allocated compute resources may be inadequate for big parts of the submitted job and unnecessarily increase processing time and cost. In this paper we discuss the opportunities and challenges for efficient parallel data processing in clouds and present our research project Nephele. Nephele is the first data processing framework to explicitly exploit the dynamic resource allocation offered by today’s IaaS clouds for both, task scheduling and execution. Particular tasks of a processing job can be assigned to different types of virtual machines which are automatically instantiated and terminated during the job execution. Based on this new framework, we perform extended evaluations of Map Reduce-inspired processing jobs on an IaaS cloud system and compare the results to the popular data processing framework Hadoop.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1102
   8 Vulnerability Discovery with Attack Injection

Kotha Naga Anusha, Dr. P. Harini

Abstract

The increasing reliance put on networked computer systems demands higher levels of dependability. This is even more relevant as new threats and forms of attack are constantly being revealed, compromising the security of systems. This paper addresses this problem by presenting an attack injection methodology for the automatic discovery of vulnerabilities in software components. The proposed methodology, implemented in AJECT, follows an approach similar to hackers and security analysts to discover vulnerabilities in network-connected servers. AJECT uses a specification of the server’s communication protocol and predefined test case generation algorithms to automatically create a large number of attacks. Then, while it injects these attacks through the network, it monitors the execution of the server in the target system and the responses returned to the clients. The observation of an unexpected behavior suggests the presence of a vulnerability that was triggered by some particular attack (or group of attacks). This attack can then be used to reproduce the anomaly and to assist the removal of the error. To assess the usefulness of this approach, several attack injection campaigns were performed with 16 publicly available POP and IMAP servers. The results show that AJECT could effectively be used to locate vulnerabilities, even on well-known servers tested throughout the years.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1103
   9 Performance Analysis of Ad-Hoc Networks by Varying Fragmentation Threshold

Dr. Rahul Malhotra, Anupama

Abstract

Ad-Hoc Networks are a new emerging wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts due to an edge gained over the traditional wired fixed infrastructure. Though the adhoc networks provide an advantage of mobility but then too certain limitations subject this network. In this paper the wireless Adhoc Networks has been discussed. The emphasis is laid on the effect of the fragmentation of data packets. Two case studies have been implemented using OPNET simulator. Case Study I deal with the simple Wireless Adhoc Network, wherein no fragmentation of data Packets is carried out. Case Study II involves the concept of fragmentation. The work involves two scenarios in which comparison has been done for the above discussed Case Studies. In the case studies the scenario has four wireless LAN-based workstations in a simple network configuration.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1104
   10 Text Independent Speaker Identification System with Zak Transform and Generalized Gaussian Mixer Model

M. Vinaya Chandra, P. Soundarya Mala, Dr. V. Sailaja

Abstract

In this paper, Zak transform is used for feature extraction of speaker identification system. Earlier Fourier transform is widely used to extract speaker specific voice characteristics, but Fourier transform cannot be used for frequency analysis that is local in time. This limitation of Fourier transform can be overcome by Zak Transform (ZT) which gives more detailed information about speaker’s voice by means of time frequency analysis of the speech signal. The probabilistic model for this feature set is created by Generalized Gaussian Mixer Model (GGMM) Model and model parameters are estimated using Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. The performance of the model is evaluated by drawing Detection Error Tradeoff (DET) curves and finding the minimum detection cost function. This speaker model performs better than the other existing speaker models.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1105
   11 Analysis on Spatial Data Clustering Methods – A Case Study

J Rajanikanth, Dr. T.V. Rajinikanth, T V K P Prasad, B Radha Krishna

Abstract

The recent advancements and cost reduction technologies for collecting spatial data like Satellite Images, Cellular Phones, Sensor Networks, and GPS devices has facilitated huge collection of data referenced in space and time. The conventional systems and classical data mining techniques are not useful in discovering or retrieving the interesting hidden information from these large collections of data. Spatial data are embedded in continuous space, whereas classical datasets (e.g. transactions) are often discrete. Spatial data require complex data preprocessing, transformation, data mining, and post-processing techniques to extract novel, useful, and understandable desired patterns. Thus, new methods are needed to analyze spatial data to extract interesting, useful, and non-trivial patterns. The main goal of this paper is to disseminate this research field, giving an overview of the current state of the art and the main methodologies and algorithms for spatial data mining.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1106
   12 Maximizing System Lifetime of Query-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Bhuvaneshwari Patil, B.Vamshi Krishna

Abstract

The last few years have seen an increased interest in the potential use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in various fields like disaster management, battle field surveillance, and border security surveillance. In query based wireless sensor systems, a user would issue a query and expect a response to be returned within a deadline. Retrieving sensor data such that QoS requirements are satisfied is a challenging problem. While the use of fault tolerance mechanisms through redundancy improves query reliability in the presence of unreliable wireless communication and sensor faults, it could cause the energy of the system to be quickly depleted. Therefore, there is an inherent trade-off between query reliability versus energy consumption in query-based wireless sensor systems. In this paper, we develop adaptive fault-tolerant quality of service (QoS) control algorithms based on hop-by-hop data delivery utilizing “source” and “path” redundancy and clustering algorithm with the goal to satisfy application QoS requirements while prolonging the lifetime of the sensor system We discover that there exists optimal “source” and “path” redundancy under which the lifetime of the system is maximized while satisfying application QoS requirements. Numerical data are presented and validated through extensive simulation, with physical interpretations given, to demonstrate the feasibility of our algorithm design. We develop mathematical a model for the lifetime of the sensor system as a function of system parameters including the “source” and “path” redundancy levels utilized.after the abstract, to be followed by the keywords, then begin the main text after leaving another blank line. All manuscripts must be in English.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1107
   13 Impact of Refactoring on Software Quality Factors

Rushiraj A. Tayde, Ganesh B. Regulwar, Kalyani G. Nimbokar

Abstract

Refactoring is a disciplined technique for restructuring an existing body of code, altering its internal structure without changing its external behavior. Refactoring are commonly used in agile software processes to improve software quality after a significant software development or evolution. The purpose of these refactoring operations is to transform a program structure into a better quality after fixing quality defects such as bad smells, anti-patterns, flaws, pitfalls, anomalies, ill-nesses. This kind of transformations reduces the cost and effort of software maintainability for the long run by keeping software complexity within acceptable levels. There is belief that refactoring improves quality factors such as understandability, flexibility, productivity and reusability. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support such assumptions. We study the effect of software refactoring on software quality. Results indicate that refactoring not only increases aspects of software quality, but also improves productivity.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1109
   14 DNA Computing

Sumit Ghulyani, Varun Bajaj, Niranjan Sangwan, Yogesh Chandna, Ashok Kumar, Rohit Kumar

Abstract

DNA computing, also known as molecular computing, is a new loom to massively parallel calculation. The latest computer to come out of the University of Southern California isn’t remarkable for its petite dimension or computational influence. It’s prominent because it is made from DNA, the infinitesimal acids that exist in every cell and are accountable for all life. The DNA computer, which more narrowly resembles a biochemistry lab than a PC, was the primary non electronic device including the human mind to solve a reason dilemma with more than 1 million probable answers. Computers in the present day all use binary codes – 1’s and 0’s or on’s and off’s. These codes are the foundation for all possible calculations a computer is capable to perform. DNA is in fact quite analogous to binary code. Each DNA strand is made up of some mishmash of A’s, T’s, C’s and G’s that act just like a computer’s 1’s and 0’s. Furthermore, DNA copies, stores and parses information like a being hard drive and processor. Within the cell you have all the basic gear,” says Adleman. “It’s just a matter of shipping out the computation. In 1994, Dr. Leonard Adleman wrote the first manuscript on DNA computing. In this paper, he set up a way to solve the “Hamiltonian path predicament,” which involves finding all the potential paths between a convinced numbers of vertices. It is also known as the “traveling salesman problem.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1110
   15 Enhancement in Image Detection and Recognition Through Surveillance

Raj Babbar Sharma, P. K. Singh

Abstract

In recent years, the use of Intelligent Closed-Circuit Television (ICCTV) for crime avoidance and detection play significant role. Face detection and recognition has gained major attention in image investigation and understanding. Over the last 15 years or so, it has become an admired area in computer applications in image analysis and for understanding. Surveillance applications has a difficult task in real time human face detection and recognition for the image and video sequence due to dissimilarity in surroundings, lighting, facial expression, low resolution and contrast, blur and noise. This paper describes high-speed and exact face detection and recognition framework that is capable of processing images extremely quickly while achieving high detection rates. The proposed algorithm work in two phases, first user can register for recognition and then in second phase register user can recognize from the stored database. This algorithm is tested on face images which is dissimilar in appearance and illumination, can be obtained from confidence factors. One of its main aims understands the multipart human visual system and the knowledge of how humans indicate faces in order to distinguish diverse identities with high correctness.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1111
   16 E-Agriculture with Mobile Security Alerts

T. V. Subramanyam, Y. Sumanth, K. Satish, Y. K. Viswanadham

Abstract

E-Agriculture is an application in agriculture with innovative ideas, techniques and scientific knowledge to expand the horizons of the computer science. This paper is about providing security to the farmer resources. This paper covers the diverse areas ranging from geographic information system, information system related to image processing techniques and biometric algorithms used in agriculture. It is hoped that this paper will provide the basic and fundamental knowledge of understanding the concepts of image processing techniques in e-agriculture. About 80% of the farmers all over the world were concerned about lack of control over land and other resources required for crop production and cited this as a major constraint in attaining both field and paddy security[1]. This paper is prepared, taking into consideration of these problems of the farmers. The paper will also be a guide for the researchers.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1112
   17 Security in Cloud Computing

Ravi Pal Singh

Abstract

With the advent of technology the rapacity to visualize and innovate more and more has increased exponentially. At the same time the need to increase the efficiency with the resources available and decrease the corresponding costs has been the primary goal. One such innovation is “Cloud Computing”. In this paper we discuss the introduction to cloud computing, the security threats related to it and finally their plausible solutions. Security threats like user access control, data loss, shared resources and technology have also been described in the paper.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1113
   18 Analysis and Design of Packet Resolution in a Composite Network using a Queuing Model

M. Murali, R. Srinivasan

Abstract

In cellular network a region is divided into a number of geographical areas called cells. The base station has to be configured to enable the flow of data among mobile users. Packets arriving at a base station are many fold, which are classified as high-priority and lowpriority packets. In order to give preference to the high-priority packets, M/G/1 model based on queuing theory is employed. M/G/1 model is a more general class of resource sharing system. It can be generalized such that packets in a queue can belong to one of K priority classes. In the queuing system some packets get preferential treatment are called priority queuing systems. In this paper we consider two priority classes in an M/G/1 queue. M/G/1 queuing model represents the behaviour of the priority queuing system with pre-emption in processing the packets. When a high-priority packet arrives at the system while a low-priority packet is being in service, the high-priority packet will be served immediately and the low priority packet is pre-empted and go to the head of the queue of its class. In order to achieve best quality of service certain important parameters have to be analyzed. So, we analyze the mean time in the queue, mean time in the system and how the high priority packets are processed with minimum delay.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1113
   19 Information-Based Interactive Postmining of Involvement System by Ontologies

P. Eswara Durga Bhavani, R. Ravi Kumar

Abstract

First, we propose to use ontologies in order to improve the integration of user knowledge in the postprocessing task. Second, we propose the Rule Schema formalism extending the specification language proposed by Liu et al. for user expectations. In Data Mining, the usefulness of association rules is strongly limited by the huge amount of delivered rules. To overcome this drawback, several methods were proposed in the literature such as itemset concise representations, redundancy reduction, and postprocessing. However, being generally based on statistical information, most of these methods do not guarantee that the extracted rules are interesting for the user. Thus, it is crucial to help the decision-maker with an efficient postprocessing step in order to reduce the number of rules. This paper proposes a new interactive approach to prune and filter discovered rules. Furthermore, an interactive framework is designed to assist the user throughout the analyzing task. Applying our new approach over voluminous sets of rules, we were able, by integrating domain expert knowledge in the postprocessing step, to reduce the number of rules to several dozens or less. Moreover, the quality of the filtered rules was validated by the domain expert at various points
in the interactive process.
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A-1114
   20 Network Issues for Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) in Cloud Computing

S. Rajesh, P. Shylender Reddy, J. Karthik

Abstract

Virtualization has been revolutionizing the IT world, enabling businesses to gain tremendous advantages, such as cost reductions in infrastructure and utilities. Increased redundancy, business recovery improvements, and greater business scalability are also being realized. These benefits are driving virtualization technology into nearly every IT organization. Desktop computing is ubiquitous and represents a growing cost for IT. Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) has emerged as an effective solution to help enterprises overcome challenges associated with traditional desktop computing. VDI helps enterprises to deliver applications and information to the end users seamlessly while ensuring centralized deployment and maintenance of desktop infrastructure from the enterprise data centers. Updating operating systems and applications has become very time consuming and costly while securing access to data has become more complex. Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) offers a solution. VDI separates the desktop operating system and application configuration from the physical device. Instead of managing individual desktop devices in a distributed manner, the software stacks (operating system plus applications and configuration settings) are hosted in the data center using a master catalog of pre-built and tested configurations. Users are assigned to a particular standard configuration that supports their role. When they connect to the VDI environment, applications run on virtual servers with screen updates pushed over the network (campus LAN or WAN) to the user’s display. Cloud computing is also on the rise, taking virtualization to the next level. The next logical step for today’s corporate IT infrastructure is desktop virtualization, also known as Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI). The idea is simply to provide standard desktops as virtual machines that are accessible by users through other devices, such as desktops, laptops, thin clients, mobile devices, tablets and smart phones. While there are obvious Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) advantages to virtualization for the server and storage areas, the main drivers for VDI are improved service to the user, reduced operational cost for the support organization, and increased security (data is kept within the data center and not stored on the device itself). Clearly, VDI has attractive advantages. VDI deployed over cloud infrastructure and delivered as “desktop as a service” makes the overall value proposition even more powerful. The combination of VDI and Cloud, also referred to as VDI on Cloud, is a scenario where VDI infrastructure is deployed centrally on a unified stack of cloud enabled platform (private cloud) [1].
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1115
   21 Similarity Measure Based on Multi View Point Clustering

M. Srinivasa Rao, K. T. V. Subba Rao

Abstract

Clustering plays an important role in providing intuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by organizing large amounts of information into a small number of meaningful clusters The main concept is similarities/dissimilarities measure from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Viewpoint based Similarity measuring method, named MVS. MVS is potentially more suitable for text documents than the popular cosine similarity. MVS, two criterion functions, IR and IV, and their respective clustering algorithms, MVSC-IR and MVSC-IV, have been introduced. Compared with other state-of-the-art clustering methods that use different types of similarity measure, on a large number of document datasets and under different evaluation metrics, the proposed algorithms show that they could provide significantly improved clustering performance.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1116
   22 Securing AODV Routing Protocol from Black Hole Attack Using Prior Request Reply Algorithm

S. Tamilarasan, G. EzraSastry

Abstract

Ad-hoc networks are emerging technology, due to their spontaneous nature, are frequently established insecure environments, which makes them vulnerable to attacks. These attacks are launched by participating malicious nodes against different network services. Routing protocols, which act as the binding force in these networks, are a common target of these nodes. Ad hoc Ondemand Distance Vector routing (AODV) is a widely adopted network routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Black hole attack is one of the severe security threats in ad-hoc networks which can be easily employed by exploiting vulnerability of on-demand routing protocols such as AODV. In this paper we proposed a solution for identifying the malicious node in AODV protocol suffering from black hole attack. As a result we can show the significant improvement of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and an average End-to-End delay.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1117
   23 A Novel Approach for Security of Web Databases

Dilip Kumar Choubey, Joy Bhattacharjee, Roopali Soni

Abstract

In the information age we are drowning with information. To secure the databases in this information is a wild task, because the information can cost millions of dollars. Web and distributed databases play the key role in most of these Web applications and thus it is critical to protect them from unauthorized access and malicious attacks. The secrecy and the integrity are two important demands of security system. When database access control and the network security are addressed separately, the security systems are not optimized sufficiently as a whole. We propose a method of integrating network security with criterion based access control to handle network security and the fine grained Web database access control simultaneously. In this paper we have presented a novel approach to protect the databases in the web server through cells which we can call the fine grains.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1118
   24 Concurrent Programming

Yogesh Jain

Abstract

Architectural advances of recent years, coupled with the growing availability of networked computers, have led to a new style of computing, called concurrent programming, which allows multiple computations to occur simultaneously in cooperation with each other. Concurrent programming has become ubiquitous, but today’s idly-used concurrent programming models provide few safety guarantees, making it easy to write code with subtle errors. In this article the process of the Concurrent Programming is described with ways to implement it.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1119
   25 Predicting the Suitable Parameters of Indoor Propagation Model Using CSP Algorithm

Nagendra Sah, Anuj Agrawal

Abstract

Constraint programming is the study of system which is based on constraints. The solution of a constraint satisfaction problem is a set of variable value assignments, which satisfies all members of the set of constraints in the CSP. In this paper the application of constraint satisfaction programming is to be used in predicting the path loss of various indoor propagation models using Depth First Search Algorithm, which is basic algorithm of CSP. After predicting the path loss at different set of parameters such as frequencies , floor attenuation factor , path loss exponent , we find the optimum set of parameter frequency , floor attenuation factor , path loss exponent at which the path loss is minimum. For this optimization CSP provides an optimization algorithm called Branch and Bound Algorithm. Presents the additional path loss caused by the floors between transmitter and receiver by considering the average floor attenuation factors found for up to floors of the building. A comparative analysis has been done to validate the applicability of these three different indoor propagation models at various frequencies and distances.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1120
   26 Design and Implementation of Faster and Low Power Multipliers

Susmita Mishra

Abstract

A multiplier is one of the key hardware blocks in most digital and high performance systems such as FIR filters, digital signal processors and microprocessors etc. With advances in technology, many researchers have tried and are trying to design multipliers which offer either of the following- high speed, low power consumption, regularity of layout and hence less area or even combination of them in multiplier. Thus making them suitable for various high speed, low power, and compact VLSI implementations. However area and speed are two conflicting constraints. So improving speed results always in larger areas. So here we try to find out the best trade off solution among the both of them.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1121
   27 Comparison of Various Configurations of Hybrid Raman Amplifiers

Sunil Gautam

Abstract

In this paper various configurations of raman amplifier have been studied. Hybrid Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are designed in order to maximize the span length and to minimize the impairments of fiber nonlinearities. In case A, raman amplification is observed on DCF, DS_anomalous fiber and SMF. We observed that DS_anomalous fiber gives better results as compared to SMF and DCF. In case B, we considered the combined effect of both EDFA and SOA on Raman Amplifier and observed that SOA as preamplifier and EDFA as post amplifier ( Type I ) configuration gives more output power than the configuration having EDFA as pre amplifier and SOA as post amplifier ( Type II ) configuration. In case C, we explored two configurations for Raman amplifier (Preamplifier or Postamplifier) in association with EDFA. We observed that Raman Amplifier is more efficient when used as preamplifier in association with EDFA. In case D, we explored two configurations for Raman amplifier (Preamplifier or Postamplifier) in association with SOA. We observed that Raman Amplifier is more efficient when used as preamplifier in association with SOA. In case E, we observed two configurations in which DCF is used as pre and post dispersion compensating fiber in accordance with FRA. In precompensation technique the DCF is used prior to FRA ( Type I ) and in post compensation technique the DCF is used after FRA ( Type II ) in a optical system. We observed that DCF as pre compensation technique ( Type I ) is better than DCF used as postcompensation technique ( Type II ) when length of DCF is made equal to FRA length. In case F, we observed that DCF as post compensation technique ( Type II ) is better than DCF used as precompensation technique ( Type I ) when length of DCF is made constant and equal to 30 km for variable FRA length. The results of these configurations are compared by Q graph, BER graph, output power graph and eye opening graphs.
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IJCST/34/1/
A-1122
   28 A Large-Scale Two-Tier Wireless Sensor Network Storage & Secure Query Processing

M. Vijaya Bhaskar, B. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract

Most future large-scale sensor networks are expected to follow a two-tier architecture which consists of resource-rich master nodes at the upper tier and resource-poor sensor nodes at the lower tier. Sensor nodes submit data to nearby master nodes which then answer the queries from the network owner on behalf of sensor nodes. Relying on master nodes for data storage and query processing raises severe concerns about data confidentiality and query-result correctness when the sensor network is deployed in hostile environments. In particular, a compromised master node may leak hosted sensitive data to the adversary; it may also return juggled or incomplete query results to the network owner.In this paper we present a secure range queries in event-driven twotier WSNs with in-network storage and query processing. We adopt the bucketing technique [9] to strike a balance between data confidentiality and query efficiency.
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IJCST/34/1/A-1123
   29 Effective Algorithms in Prioritizing and Suggesting the Popular Items

A. B. Pradeep Kumar, D. Rajesh Khanna

Abstract

Now a day’s interactive computational system are helping people to leverage social information; in technical these systems are called social navigation systems. These help individuals in behavior guiding and decision making over selecting the data. Based on the individual feedback the ranking and suggesting of popular items were done. The individual feedback can be obtained by displaying group of suggested items, where the selection of items is based on the preference of the individual or from the suggested items. The objective is to suggest true popular items by quickly studying the true popularity ranking of items. The complexity in suggesting to the users can emphasize reputation for some items but may disfigure the resulting item ranking for other items. So the problem of ranking and suggesting items affected many applications including tag suggestions and search query suggestions for social tagging systems. In this paper we propose and study algorithms like naive, PROP, M2S, FM2S algorithms for ranking and suggesting popular items.
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IJCST/34/1/A-1124
   30 A Novel Network Level Privacy Using IRL in WSN

Koteswara Rao Kattupalli, Raju Gumpula

Abstract

A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices that use sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. Full network level privacy spectrum comprises of identity, route, location and data privacy. Existing privacy schemes of wireless sensor networks only provide partial network level privacy. Providing full network level privacy is a critical and challenging problem due to the constraints imposed by the sensor nodes, sensor networks and QoS issues. In this paper, we propose full network level privacy solution that addresses this problem. This solution comprises of Identity, Route and Location (IRL) privacy algorithm and data privacy mechanism, that collectively provides protection against privacy disclosure attacks such as eavesdropping and hop-byhop trace back attacks. To achieve full network level privacy we must provide routing-path privacy and Data privacy. To provide all these are critical and challenging problems due to constraint on Sensor nodes, Sensor networks and Quality of service (packet reliability).
Full Paper

IJCST/34/1/A-1125
   31 Anonymization Technique for Data Publishing Using Multiple Sensitive Attributes

A. Krishna Mohan, M. Phanindra, MHM Krishna Prasad

Abstract

Many organizations often need to publish their data for research and other purposes. The data contains individuals’ information that may be sensitive. So data anonymization must be provided. For maintaining individual privacy of people whose data is needed to be kept private, as one of many anonymization techniques, k-anonymity is introduced. It requires equivalence classes that contain at least k records. One of two basic problems of privacy in data publishing identity disclosure is prevented by k-anonymity as proved. But another problem attribute is not solved by k-anonymity. In attribute disclosure problem, the data generally contains multiple attribute, which are needed to be generalized and sometimes suppressed to provide anonymity. For this generalization/suppression techniques were introduced to prevent attribute disclosure in k-anonymity. But as observed keenly these techniques also contain several drawbacks. To avoid the problem of above techniques, Microaggregation for k-anonymity is introduced. A Multivariate microaggregation method is proposed here to prevent attribute disclosure effectively.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/1/A-1126
   32 Efficient Utilization of Buffer in Wireless Networks

V. Kantharao, V. Sangeetha

Abstract

A packet buffer for the protocol processor is a large memory space that holds incoming data packets for an application. Data packets for each application are stored in the form of FIFO queues in the packet buffer. Packets are dropped when the buffer is full. An efficient buffer management algorithm is required to manage the buffer space among the different FIFO queues and to avoid heavy packet loss.This paper proposes a new buffer management algorithm, Dynamic Algorithm with Different Thresholds (DADT) to improve the packet loss ratio. This algorithm takes advantage of the different packet sizes for each application and proportionally allocates buffer space for each queue. The performance of the DADT algorithm is dependent upon the packet size distribution in a network traffic load.
Full Paper

IJCST/34/1/A-1127
   33 Efficiently Identifying Different Types of Representation – Temporal Data Clustering Via Weighted Clustering Ensembles

S. Ravikumar, P. Govind

Abstract

Clustering of sequences or time series is concerned with grouping a collection of time series (or sequences) based on their similarity. Clustering is of particular interest in temporal data mining since it provides an attractive mechanism to automatically find some structure in large data sets that would be otherwise difficult to summarize (or visualize). There are many applications where a time series clustering activity is relevant. We present an approach to temporal data clustering with different representations to overcome the fundamental weakness of the representation-based temporal data clustering analysis. Our approach consists of initial clustering analysis on different representations to produce multiple partitions and clustering ensemble construction to produce a final partition by combining those partitions achieved in initial clustering analysis. While initial clustering analysis can be done by any existing clustering algorithms, we propose a novel weighted clustering ensemble algorithm of a two stage reconciliation process. In our proposed algorithm, a weighting consensus function reconciles input partitions to candidate consensus partitions according to various clustering validation criteria. Then, an agreement function further reconciles those candidate consensus partitions to yield a final partition.
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IJCST/34/1/A-1128
   34 Discovering Optimum Forwarder List in Multicast Wireless Sensor Network

Lakshmi. Nalla, P Satyanarayana

Abstract

Routing Protocol design for wireless networks is problem area that has two essential requirements. Minimize energy cost and maximize network throughput. Wireless Sensor Network consists of sensor devices which sensors signals to other sensor devices. In order to sent packet form one sensor device to another, It uses concept of broadcasting i.e. it sends packet to all it neighbors. But this scheme requires more energy to minimize the energy cost of transmission, this proposed scheme finds optimum forwarded list. This paper focus on finding optimum forwarded list for transmission of the packet for source node to destination group. i.e. routing in multicasting. This paper also describes selecting and prioritizing forwarded list to minimize consumptions by all nodes. Simulation results shows that this protocol energy efficient multicast routing in wireless sensor networks (EEMRWSN) perform better in terms of energy consumption.
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IJCST/34/1/A-1129
   35 Efficiently Secure the Data Storage in Cloud Computing

M. A. Baseer, G. Rama Mohan Rao, T. Bhaskar, Srinu Babu Raghu

Abstract

The security is an important aspect of quality of service in cloud. The cloud computing is of critical importance to assure users that their data are being correctly stored and maintained. Cloud computing inevitably poses new challenges in security threats. In this paper, we propose an effective and flexible distributed scheme with explicit dynamic data support to ensure the correctness of users’ data in the cloud. This construction drastically reduces the communication and storage overhead as compared to the traditional replication-based file distribution techniques. By utilizing the homomorphic token with distributed verification of erasure-coded data, our scheme achieves the storage correctness insurance as well as data error localization: whenever data corruption has been detected during the storage correctness verification, our scheme can almost guarantee the simultaneous localization of data errors, i.e., the identification of the misbehaving server(s).The proposed scheme is highly efficient in cloud security and performance.
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IJCST/34/1/A-1130
   36 Efficiently Maintaining Intruder Information System in Wireless Sensor Network

Gangadhar Karthik, E. Jagadeeswara Rao, G. Praveen Babu

Abstract

Intrusion detection is the act of detecting unwanted traffic on a network or a device. An IDS can be a piece of installed software or a physical appliance that monitors network traffic in order to detect unwanted activity and events such as illegal and malicious traffic, traffic that violates security policy, and traffic that violates acceptable use policies. The sensor networks are helpless to various attacks. In response, schemes have been proposed to identify intruders misbehaving in routing, localization, and other scenarios. Once an intruder is identified, it is isolated by its detectors. However, this is insufficient. Nodes other than these detectors should also be aware of the intruder; otherwise, the intruder can be relocated or duplicated to other places to continue attacks. To share intruder information with all sensor nodes, the detectors may generate and flood intruder reports to the whole network, directly or through trusted membership servers. Other nodes receive and record the reports to maintain their knowledge of intruders. This approach creates security problem, To address this problem, we propose a three-tier framework, consisting of a verifiable intruder reporting (VIR) scheme, a quorum based caching (QBC) scheme for efficiently propagating intruder reports to the whole network, and a collaborative Bloom Filter (CBF) scheme for handling intruder information locally. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) have become widely recognized as powerful tools for identifying, deterring and deflecting malicious attacks over the network. Essential to almost every intrusion detection system is the ability to search through packets and identify content that matches known attacks. In this paper, common searching algorithms (string matching, Native, Boyer Moore and pattern matching algorithms) are examined on Ubicom Network Processor which is intended to be used as Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS). Afterword, the suitable algorithm for Ubicom network processor is chosen which combine string matching and Native algorithms because these algorithms don’t have any type of preprocessing as Ubicom network processor doesn’t contain Micro Engine (ME) and doesn’t support multithreading which are used to speed the operation of preprocessing.
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IJCST/34/1/A-1131
   37 Efficiently Identifying Top Quality Feature Objects in Spatial Data

Chakrapani Avala, Yamini Santhoshi P

Abstract

To select the top rank Objects based on the quality of features in their spatial neighborhood. An attractive type of preference queries, which select the best spatial location with respect to the quality of facilities in its spatial area. Given a set D of interesting objects (e.g., candidate locations), a top-k spatial preference query retrieves the k objects in D with the highest scores. The featured score of a given object is derived from the quality of features (e.g., location and nearby features) in its spatial neighborhood. User preference queries are very important in spatial databases. With the help of these queries, one can found best location among points saved in database. In many situation users evaluate quality of a location with its distance from its nearest neighbor among a special set of points. In this paper R-trees can efficiently process main spatial query types, including spatial range queries, nearest neighbor queries, and spatial joins. It finds out the top most feature objects.
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IJCST/34/1/A-1132
   38 Effective Determination For Co-Operative Communication Network

Ch. Prasada Rao, P. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract

In cooperative networks, each node in the routing path recruits the neighboring nodes to transmit and receive the data to assist in communication. It forms a cluster at transmitting and receiving end and then form a transmission link between these two clusters. This paper proposes a new reliable and energy efficient cooperative protocol to establish a cluster at the receiver end, before receiving the data. The end-to-end robustness of the protocol to data-packet loss, along with the tradeoff between energy consumption and error rate is analyzing here. The analysis results are used to compare the end-to-end robustness and energy saving of our new protocol with other two schemes such as one non-cooperative and one another cooperative scheme named as CAN-I. The reduction in error rate and the energy savings translate into increased lifetime of cooperative sensor networks.
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IJCST/34/1/A-1133
   39 Effective Conflict-Free Query Scheduler for Wireless Sensor Networks

M. Saikiran, K. Eswar, Dr. P. Harini

Abstract

There is an increase in demand of high performance query services, with the emergence of high data rate applications. To meet this challenge we propose Dynamic Conflict-free Query Scheduling (DCQS), a novel scheduling technique for queries in wireless sensor networks. In contrast to earlier Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) designed for query services in wireless sensor networks. DCQS has several unique features. First, it optimizes the query performance through conflict-free transmission scheduling based on the temporal properties of queries in wireless sensor networks. Second, it can adapt to workload changes without explicitly reconstructing the transmission schedule. Furthermore, DCQS also provides predictable performance in terms of the maximum achievable query rate. The nodes operate over the timevarying wireless channel whose quality significantly fluctuates over time due to fading and interference. Such time-varying nature of wireless channel imposes many constraints in designing an energy-efficient transmission scheme. In this work, we derive a tight bound on the maximum query rate achieved under DCQS.
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IJCST/34/1/A-1134