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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (IJCST)-VOL III ISSUE III, VER. 5, JULY TO SEPTEMBER, 2012


International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 3 Issue 3, Ver. 5
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   179 Online Index Recommendations: A Case Study
Dr. L Prasannakumar, M SREE Jagadeesh, D Ratna Giri, B Radha Krishna

Abstract

Large databases pose a challenge with respect to efficient access. Users are usually interested in querying data over a relatively small subset of the entire attribute set at a time. A potential solution is to use lower dimensional indexes that accurately represent the user access patterns. So we are going to design one tool to address these issues we introduce a parameterizable technique to recommend indexes based on index types that are frequently used for large data sets. If the users query pattern changed the index will automatically adjust it. To do that we incorporate a query pattern change detection mechanism to determine when the access patterns have changed enough to warrant change in the physical database design. We perform experiments with a number of data sets, query sets, and parameters to show the effect that varying these characteristics has on analysis results.
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   180 Implementing Discrete Logarithm based Digital Signature Schemes
A. B. Nimbalkar, Dr. C. G. Desai

Abstract

A digital signature is a cryptographic method for verifying the identity of an individual, a process, computer system, or any other entity, in much the same way as a handwritten signature verifies the identity of a person. Digital signatures use the properties of public-key cryptography to produce pieces of information that verify the origin of data. Several digital schemes have been proposed as on date based on factorization, discrete logarithm and elliptical curve. However, the Pollard rho and the baby-step giant-step Algorithm digital scheme based on discrete logarithm gained wide acceptance. Many schemes followed there by with little changes in it. Some of the schemes evolved by combing factorization and discrete logarithm together making it difficult for solving two hard problems from the hackers point of view. This paper presents the implementation of Pollard rho and the baby-step giant-step algorithm, with the help different tools and further analyzed them for different perceptions.
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   181 A Newfangled Template Extraction from Heterogeneous Web Pages using IEPAD
A. Srilakshmi, Dr. Ch. Satyanarayana, N. Ranjana

Abstract

Now-a-days the rapid expansion of the web is causing the constant growth of information, leading to several problems such as an increased difficulty of extracting potentially useful knowledge. We have many websites which consists of web pages having common template structures with contents. Templates are the HTML documents, and these documents may contain data that is irrelevant to the query. The structure of these documents may be volatile and this affects the extraction process. Domain knowledge about the data source is also embedded in HTML documents and must be extracted and in addition to answering queries, the wrapper will provide information. In this paper we consider all the web documents as one cluster and perform the partition of cluster based on the support count of the paths.We consider the size of the cluster based on the number of paths produced by the documents given as input. Therefore, there is a significant need of robust, flexible Information Extraction (IE) systems that transform the web pages into structured data ready for post processing. To overcome the drawbacks in existing system, we propose novel algorithm to improve the Efficiency, Accuracy and scalability of template extraction from heterogeneous web pages.
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   182 Enhancing the Throughput of the Multi-Hop Wireless Networks by Avoiding Packet Drop
Shiv Kumar Tiwari, Dr. Sadhna Mishra

Abstract

Multi-hop wireless networks such as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) can be divided into two main categories: 1) organized or closed networks, and 2) self-organized or open networks [2]. Problem of congestion in MANET has been addressed by many researchers. Network based congestion avoidance which involves managing the queues in the network devices is an integral part of any network. Most of the mobile networks use Droptail queue management where packets are dropped on queue overflow which is global synchronization problem. Especially in MANETs, packet loss results in increased overheads. This paper presents a new algorithm to avoid congestion using one or more queue thresholds on nodes and corresponding flow rate decided in advance for each node. When any node attains an initial value of queue threshold then it sends this status to its downstream nodes which in turn uses the pre-decided flow rate of packet transfer to its upstream nodes. The flow rate on each node is adjusted according to the status received from its upstream nodes. This proposed algorithm uses the existing infrastructure to inform to other nodes about its current queue status.
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   183 The New Paradigm of Web Technology
N. Aditya Sundar, G. Srikanth Reddy, Ch. Chakradhara Rao, V. Srinadh

Abstract

This paper describes several technical aspects of web technologies. Whatever the inventions are made they are finally projected in the market by different companies and these companies with stand in market mainly for 2 reasons. The first one being the Quality of the product and the second one is Customer Relations with the Company. The Quality of the product is taken care by the core team of the company. So here in our paper we are much concerned with the Customer Relationship which integrates with 3 technologies CRM (Customer Relationship Management), Cloud (Azure/ Amazon/Google) and CMS (Content Management System). One more point that we want to quote here is that if we can make this as an open source CMS (Like joomla, drupal) where individual developers work on it and make individual modules then this type of services will go virally into use, so that both developers and the customers make a landmark in the Cyber History.
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   184 Long Term Evolution: Technologically Advantages over WiMax
Nikhil Ranjan, Vibhor Sharma, Vandana Bharti, Ankur Chaudhary

Abstract

The resent increase of mobile data usage and emergence of new applications such as MMOG (Multimedia Online Gaming), mobile TV, Web 2.0, streaming contents have motivated the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). In this paper we mainly focus on LTE with 4G technology, its future scope and how it is differ from WiMax.
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   185 Fast IP Rerouting Using Multiple Routing Configurations
V. Santhosh Kumar, V. Shankar, M. Suresh Reddy

Abstract

As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our communications infrastructure. The slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing problem. To assure fast recovery from link and node failures in IP networks, we present a new recovery scheme called Multiple Routing Configurations (MRC). Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure. MRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destination based hop by hop forwarding. MRC is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be implemented with only minor changes to existing solutions. In this paper we presented MRC, and analyze its performance with respect to scalability, backup path lengths, and load distribution after a failure. We also show how an estimate of the traffic demands in the network can be used to improve the distribution of the recovered traffic, and thus reduce the chances of congestion when MRC is used.
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   186 Effective Decision Making in Higher Educational Institutions using Data Warehousing and Data Mining
Alok Singh Chauhan, Akhilesh Latoria, Dr. Yashpal Singh

Abstract

One of the biggest challenges that higher education institutions face today is to improve the quality of managerial decisions. Higher educational institute seeks more efficient technology to better manage and support decision making procedures or assist them to set new strategies and plan for a better management of the current processes. One way to effectively address the challenges for improving the quality is to provide new knowledge related to the educational processes and entities to the managerial system. This knowledge can be extracted from historical and operational data that reside in the educational university’s databases using the techniques of data mining technology. Recently, there has been a growing trend to use data warehouses to support realtime decision-making about a university’s day-to-day operations. This paper presents the capabilities of data warehousing and data mining in the context of higher educational system by proposing a guideline for higher education institutions to enhance their current decision processes and applying data mining techniques to discover new explicit knowledge which could be useful for the decision making processes.
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   187 Wireless Network Security Protocol with Cryptography and RFID System
Deepmala Kurrey, Pradeep Kumar Jaisal

Abstract

Wireless communication is very common and widely applicable technique in communication field. In these field new techniques invented that is called RFID technique, in which object having RFID tags on them are being accessed in radio frequency region. Cryptography (method involves the both process “encryption” and “decryption”) is widely used in network system’s security. It is also the ancient method of encoding the original messages for transmission. On the other side The RFID technology recently has gained enormous attention in various field like in database maintenances(in the library management system), media, industry and as well as in network security. In the Radio frequency identification (RFID) use of an object (typically referred to as RFID tag) applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person (user) for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Each member has its unique id or RFID tag. However security and privacy pose significant challenges on the system. This paper will describe about the brief introduction of the old and dynamic method employed for network security that is cryptography. Cryptographic technique is widely applicable in network security field but still we are suffering from hacking and unauthorized access. Hence we have introduced a new idea for being applicable in security field that is RFID technique. Here we will describe its various applications in various fields and how it can be implemented in network security. The security and privacy issues of RFID and their solutions will also be discussed. And the future possible ideas for the new technologies will also be discussed.
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   188 TPA Based Public Auditing for Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing
Karuna G, K. Ravindra, Sekhar Ch.

Abstract

In this paper we discuss the evolvement if cloud computing paradigm and present a framework of Third Party Auditor (TPA), on behalf of the cloud client, to verify the integrity of the dynamic data stored in the cloud. Cloud computing as the on-demand and remote provision of computational resources has been eagerly waited for a long time as a computing utility. It helps users to store their data in the cloud and enjoy the high quality service. However, users do not have physical possession on their own data, hence using a shared pool of configurable computing resources. When users put their data (of large size) on the cloud, the data integrity protection is challenging. Enabling public audit for cloud data storage security is important. Users can ask an external audit party to check the integrity of their outsourced data. Security and performance analysis show that the proposed schemes are highly efficient and provably secure.
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   189 Pervasive Healthcare for Elderly and Disabled Persons
Rajeswari. M, Praveen Kumar. B, Sailaja. P

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is one of the biggest threats to human life. Each and every year it takes thousands of people lives and also cost billions of dollars. Early detection and prevention of these diseases could save many lives and reduce the money spent considerably. Existing pervasive care systems constantly monitor sick and elderly patients and send alerts to healthcare providers when they detect abnormalities in heart rates. These systems are reactive as they take action only when abnormal heart condition, such as Tachycardia, has been detected, but it is observed that abnormality in heart rate could develop Tachycardia. Using an advanced prediction model to estimate the heart rates of selected patients when calculated heart rates exceed a predefined threshold value then pervasive care system that would send message to a designated caregivers, It has the capability of predicting heart rate abnormality, and possibly Tachycardia, well in advance. Additionally send alerts information in a secured and reliable way.
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   190 Load Balancing on Multi Channels Through Gateways
Md Sirajul Huque, P V Subbarama Sarma, A Thirupathaiah

Abstract

We propose an adaptive online load-balancing protocol for Multi-Gateway Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) which, based on the
current network conditions, balances load between gateways. Our protocol (GWLB) achieves two goals: (i) alleviating congestion in affected domains and (ii) balancing load to improve flow fairness across domains. As a result of applying GWLB the throughput and fairness of flows improves. So, the proposed scheme effectively takes into account the elastic nature of TCP traffic, and intraflow and inter-flow interference when switching flows between domains. The existing scheme contains maximizing network throughput while providing fairness is one of the key challenges in wireless LANs (WLANs). This is typically achieved when the load of access points (APs) is balanced and imbalance of load, several load balancing schemes have been proposed. These schemes commonly require proprietary software or hardware at the user side for controlling the user-AP association by controlling the size of WLAN cells. The existing scheme does not support to the users neither the IEEE 802.11 standards. It only requires the ability of dynamically changing the transmission power of the AP beacon messages. But we failed to set polynomial time algorithms which minimize the load of the most congested AP. We also consider the problem of network-wide min-max load balancing. Unable to show Simulation results the performance of the proposed method is comparable with or superior to the best existing association-based method.
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   191 Information Security : An Introduction
Harshvardhan Aggarwal

Abstract

This paper presents a tutorial introduction to basic understanding of information security. It gives the basic information about the goals of information security, attacks threatening them and the security services and mechanisms provided to counter these attacks. The paper concludes with a practical technique to implement the security goals.
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   192 Factors Affecting Retrieval of best Component from Repository
Nisha, Karambir

Abstract

Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) is a process that emphasizes the use of reusable software components. There are many benefits of reuse like risk reduction, productivity increase, quality and reliability increase and reduction in cost and development time. Software reuse based upon component is now become basis of almost every software product line. There are many methods for representation and retrieval of components, but no one provide uniform formulism for component retrieval. In the paper we are presenting what are the main factors/issues for effective retrieval of appropriate component from repository.
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   193 Preserving Privacy for Secure and Outsourcing for Linear Programming in Cloud Computing
A. Thirupathaiah, K. VamsiRam, B. A. Chakravarthy

Abstract

Cloud computing is the long dreamed vision of computing as a utility, where users can remotely store their data into the cloud so as to enjoy the on-demand high quality applications and services from a shared pool of configurable computing resources. By data outsourcing, users can be relieved from the burden of local data storage and maintenance. we utilize the public key based homomorphism authenticator and uniquely integrate it with random mask technique to achieve a privacy-preserving public auditing system for cloud data storage security while keeping all above requirements in mind. To support efficient handling of multiple auditing tasks, we further explore the technique of bilinear aggregate signature to extend our main result into a multi-user setting, where TPA can perform multiple auditing tasks simultaneously along with investigates secure outsourcing of widely applicable linear programming (LP) computations. In order to achieve practical efficiency, our mechanism design explicitly decomposes the LP computation outsourcing into public LP solvers running on the cloud and private LP parameters owned by the customer Extensive security and performance analysis shows the proposed schemes are provably secure and highly efficient.
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   194 A Review on Frequent Itemset Mining based on Partitioning Approach
Ashok Kumar D, Loraine Charlet Annie M. C.

Abstract

Data Mining is the process of extracting useful and nontrivial information from databases which helps the management to make proper decision to improve the sales. Frequent Itemset Mining helps the “supermarkets’ Managementto” understand the customer needs better and they can react to customer needs faster. Fast and scalable frequent itemset mining techniques are increasingly becoming more important because of its complexity. In this paper, a survey of existing Frequent Itemset Mining algorithms is discussed. To improve the efficiency of these algorithms partitioning techniques can be used such that repeated database scanning can be avoided. Thus the existing partitioning approaches are also discussed in this paper.
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   195 The Reliable Broadcasting in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
D Sunitha, Ch. Raja Jacob

Abstract

It will guarantee to deliver the messages from different sources to all the nodes of the network. The nodes are mobile and can move from one place to another. The solution does not require the nodes to know the network size, its diameter and number of nodes in the network. The only information a node has its identity (IP Address) and its position. On average, only a subset of nodes transmits and they transmit only once to achieve reliable broadcasting. The algorithm will calculate the relative position of the nodes with respect to the broadcasting source node. The nodes that are farthest from the source node will rebroadcast and this will minimize the number of rebroadcasts made by the intermediate nodes and will reduce the delay latency. The proposed algorithm will adapt itself dynamically to the number of concurrent broadcasts and will give the least finish time for any particular broadcast. It will be contention free, energy efficient and collision free. The reliable broadcasting algorithm will make this possible & the scheduling algorithm considers the relative position of the nodes with respect to the broadcast source.
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   196 A Study About Robust Speech Recognition And Speech Enhancements Basic Perception in Speech Processing
P. R. Saranya, N. Shanmugapriya

Abstract

Speaker recognition is the process of automatically recognizing who is speaking on the basis of individual information included in speech waves. This technique makes it possible to user’s voice to verify their identity and control access to services such as voice dialing, banking by telephone, telephone shopping, database access services, information services, voice mail, security control for confidential information areas, and remote access to computers.
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   197 Some Observations based on Comparison of MOOD and CK Software Metrics suites for Object Oriented System
Ganesh Chandra, D. L. Gupta, A. K. Malviya

Abstract

Software metrics measure both quantitative and qualitative aspects of a system. In this paper we have calculated and compared the MOOD and C K metrics suits for object oriented system on a given data set. We have found that encapsulation property of object oriented system is high in MOOD metric suite in comparison to CK metric suites.
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   198 FLASH-OFDM (Fast Low Latency Access with Seamless Handoff – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) in 4th Generation Wireless Technology
Nikhil Ranjan, Madhu Thapa, Vandana Bharti, Sonia Chhetri

Abstract

The 4G is refers to the fourth generation of wireless technology. 4G technology has been designed to be simple. A number of PDA’s and notebooks are fabricated with WiMAX chips to acquire 4G signals. In this paper we mainly focus on the working of Fast Low Latency Access with Seamless Handoff – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing i.e. FLASH-OFDM in the 4G wireless Technology. It also focuses on the various services and the security techniques that are associated with 4G.
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   199 A Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization(HACO) for Solving Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem(CVRP)
Y. Ramesh Kumar, B. Ramesh Babu, Manjula Poojary

Abstract

The Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) is a combinatorial optimization and nonlinear problem seeking to service a number of customers with a fleet of vehicles. CVRP is an important problem in the fields of transportation, distribution and logistics. Usually, the goal is delivering goods located at a central depot to customers who have placed orders. This transportation optimization problem is NP-hard, which means that the computational effort required to solve it increases exponentially with the problem size. To solve it in an acceptable time some stochastic algorithms are needed. Here we proposed the algorithm Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization(HACO) which takes the advantage of Simulated Annealing(SA) to solve CVRP
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   200 A Better and Efficient DNA DATA COMPRESSOR by Fusion of Symbolical and ARLE Technique
P. Surendra Varma, J. N. V Harish

Abstract

Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. The size and importance of these databases will be bigger and bigger in the future; therefore this information must be stored or communicated efficiently though there are many text compression algorithms, they are not well suited for the characteristics of DNA sequences. There are algorithms for DNA compression which takes advantage of repetitive nature of DNA fragments within the sequence whereas few of the other algorithms are written for the non-repeated patterns within DNA sequences. We present a compression algorithm, “DNA DATA Compressor” for DNA sequences based on amalgamation of unparalleled symbolic representation with combination of ARLE (Altered Run length Encoding) technique. The proposed technique is very simpleton and efficient for the DNA compression. The proposed algorithm performs equally well for both repeated and non-repeated patterns within the DNA sequence. We have also defined the Worst case, Average case and Best case for DNA compression using our proposed Algorithm. Assigning symbolic representation along with ARLE technique for fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression.
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   201 Clustering with Multi-Position based Parallel Compute
V. Redya Jadav, U. Varaprasad, Nimishakavi Swapna

Abstract

The major difference between a traditional dissimilarity/similarity measure and ours is that the former uses only a single viewpoint, which is the origin, while the latter utilizes many different viewpoints, which are objects assumed to not be in the same cluster with the two objects being measured. Using multiple viewpoints, more informative assessment of similarity could be achieved. Theoretical analysis and empirical study are conducted to support this claim. All clustering methods have to assume some cluster relationship among the data objects that they are applied on. Similarity between a pair of objects can be defined either explicitly or implicitly. In this paper, we introduce a novel multiviewpoint based similarity measure and two related clustering methods. Two criterion functions for document clustering are proposed based on this new measure. We compare them with several well-known clustering algorithms that use other popular similarity measures on various document collections to verify the advantages of our proposal.
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   202 A Layer based Internet Worm Detection and Classification
M. Madhu Purna Chandra Rao, Y. Chittibabu, Dr. P. Harini

Abstract

Internet worms pose a somber threat to computer safety. Traditional draw near using signatures to sense worms pose a slight risk of the zero day boat-hire. The spotlight of malware study is variable from with signature model to support the mean behavior show by the malware. This paper there a new idea of remove variable length tuition series that can distinguish worms from a clean list with data removal system. The study was facilitated by the program sort outflow in arranging controlled in the instructional series. Stand upon common data gather round from these order sequences we devise the problem as a binary classification problem and built tree found classifiers including choice tree, bagging and chance forest. Or come close to showed 95.6% result rate on novel worms whose information was not used in the model structure process.
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   203 Traditional Searchable Encryption Security of Fuzzy Keyword in Cloud
T. Gangadhar Rao, Ch. Raja jacob

Abstract

It has been Cloud Computing, more and more sensitive information being centralized into the cloud. it the protection of data privacy, sensitive data usually have to be encrypted before outsourcing, which makes effective data uti- lization a very challenging task. Which is traditional searchable encryption schemes allow a user to securely search over encrypted data through keywords and selectively retrieve files of interest, these techniques support only exact keyword search. That is, there is no tolerance of minor typos and format inconsistencies which, on the other hand, are typical user searching behavior and happen very frequently. This significant drawback makes existing techniques unsuitable in Cloud Computing as it greatly affects system usability, rendering user searching experiences very frustrating and system efficacy very low. In this paper, for the first time we formalize and solve the problem of effective fuzzy keyword search over encrypted cloud data while maintaining keyword privacy. Fuzzy keyword search greatly enhances system usability by returning the matching files when users’ searching inputs exactly match the predefined keywords or the closest possible matching files based on keyword similarity semantics, when exact match fails. In our solution, we exploit edit distance to quantify keywords similarity and develop an advanced technique on constructing fuzzy keyword sets, which greatly reduces the storage and representation overheads. Through rigorous security analysis, we show that our proposed solution is Specific and privacy-preserving, while correctly realizing the goal of fuzzy keyword findout.
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   204 Mammogram Image Analysis for Microcalcification Detection using Bee Colony Optimization
S. Jegadeesan, P. Suresh Babu

Abstract

Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers in the female population. Mammography-based screening programs are carried out in many countries. Some of the important signs of breast cancer are masses, clusters of microcalcifications, and architectural distortions. Microcalcifications are quite tiny bits of calcium, and may show up in clusters or in patterns (like circles or lines) and are associated with extra cell activity in breast tissue. In this paper, meta-heuristics algorithm Artificial Bee Colony Optimization technique is implemented to extract the suspicious region based on the asymmetric approach. The ABC technique is a metaheurisitc algorithm for numerical optimization and it is based on the behavior of honey bees of foraging concept. Results obtained with a set of mammograms indicate that this method can improve the sensitivity and reliability of the systems for automated detection of microcalicification clusters. The ROC curve is generated for the mean value of the detection rate for all the 161 pairs of mammograms in MIAS database to calculate the performance of the proposed method.
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   205 Security Providing using Blowfish, RSA and SHA-512 Algorithms
G. Hanumantha Rao, G. Narender, T. Balaji, M. Srilatha

Abstract

A Computer Network is an interconnected group of autonomous computing nodes, which use a well defined, mutually agreed set of rules and conventions known as protocols, interact with oneanother meaningfully and allow resource sharing preferably in a predictable and controllable manner. Communication has a major impact on today’s business. It is desired to communicate data with high security. Security Attacks compromises the security and hence various Symmetric and Asymmetric cryptographic algorithms have been proposed to achieve the security services such as Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity, Non-Repudiation and Availability. At present, various types of cryptographic algorithms provide high security to information on controlled networks. These algorithms are required to provide data security and users authenticity. To improve the strength of these security algorithms, a new security protocol for on line transaction can be designed using combination of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic techniques. This protocol provides three cryptographic primitives such as integrity, confidentiality and authentication. These three primitives can be achieved with the help of Secure Hash Algorithm, Blowfish algorithm and RSA algorithm. That is it uses Blowfish for encryption, RSA algorithm for authentication and SHA-512 for integrity. This new security protocol has been designed for better security with integrity using a combination of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic techniques.
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   206 A Secured Visual Cryptography Mechanism
P B Siva Varma, V V Siva Rama Raju, K R S Ramaraju, T V K P Prasad

Abstract

To prevent the confidential information from being disclosed, one needs to apply some techniques to protect it. Visual cryptography scheme is a secret sharing technique used for encrypting binary images. It splits a binary image into n shares, and gathering more than k shares can recover the secret. The remarkable feature of a visual cryptography scheme is that the decoding process is done by human eyes. A conventional visual cryptography scheme encodes a pixel on the secret image into m subpixels. This gives a study of the cheating problem in visual cryptography and extended visual cryptography schemes. This dissertation reviews the attacks of malicious adversaries who may deviate from the scheme in any way and presents three cheating methods and applied them on attacking existent visual cryptography or extended visual cryptography schemes. This dissertation proposed a generic method that converts a visual cryptography scheme to another visual cryptography scheme that has the property of cheating prevention. The overhead of the conversion is near optimal in both contrast degression and pixel expansion.
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   207 Selection of Nodes for Intrusion Detection in MANETS
S. Shashikanth, K. Srinivas, TP. Shekhar

Abstract

In this we study Leader election in the presence of selfish nodes for intrusion detection in mobile adhoc networks (MANETs). To balance the resource consumption among all nodes and prolong the lifetime of a MANET, nodes with the most remaining resources should be elected as the leaders. However, there are two main obstacles in achieving this goal. First, without incentives for serving others, a node might behave selfishly by lying about its remaining resources and avoiding being elected. Second, electing an optimal collection of leaders to minimize the overall resource consumption may incur a prohibitive performance overhead, if such an election requires flooding the network. To address the issue of selfish nodes, we present a solution based on mechanism design theory. More specifically, the solution provides nodes with incentives in the form of reputations to encourage nodes in honestly participating in the election process. The amount of incentives is based on the Vickrey, Clarke, and Groves (VCG) model to ensure truth-telling to be the dominant strategy for any node. To address the optimal election issue, we propose a series of local election algorithms that can lead to globally optimal election results with a low cost. We address these issues in two possible application settings, namely, Cluster Dependent Leader Election (CDLE) and Cluster Independent Leader Election (CILE). The former assumes given clusters of nodes, whereas the latter does not require any pre clustering. Finally, we justify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes through extensive experiments.
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   208 Innovation of Logic-Based Pattern
Thota. Jamalaiah, N. V. Kiran babu Movva, K. Nageswara Rao

Abstract

In the data mining field, association rules are discovered having domain knowledge specified as a minimum support threshold. The accuracy in setting up this threshold directly influences the number and the quality of association rules discovered. We propose a framework to discover domain knowledge report as coherent rules. Coherent rules are discovered based on the properties of propositional logic, and no background knowledge to generate them. From the coherent rules discovered, association rules can be derived objectively and directly without knowing the level of minimum support threshold required.
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   209 Assemblage of Instance of Intruding Alerts Using Consumptive Uninterrupted Flow Sculpturing of Data
M. Roshaiah, V. Redya Jadav, Y. Ramadevi

Abstract

Meta-alerts is the basis for reporting to security experts or for communication within a distributed intrusion detection system. With three benchmark data sets, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve reduction rates of up to 99.96 percent while the number of missing meta-alerts is extremely low. In addition, meta-alerts are generated with a delay of typically only a few seconds after observing the first alert belonging to a new attack instance. Metaalerts can be generated for the clusters that contain all the relevant information whereas the amount of data (i.e., alerts) can be reduced substantially. Intrusion detection can be used to identify the types of hackers attempting to tress pass into the system, thus we use the concept of alerts to cluster the types of attacks and the further counter measures, by using the concept of firewalls. . In addition, even low rates of false alerts could easily result in a high total number of false alerts if thousands of network packets or log file entries are inspected
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   210 Fixed Unmitigated Image Cryptography Schemes
V. Redya Jadav, Jonnalagadda Sravani

Abstract

A image cryptography scheme (ICS) is a kind of secret sharing scheme which allows the encoding of a secret image into shares distributed to participants. The beauty of such a scheme is that a set of qualified participants is able to recover the secret image without any cryptographic knowledge and computation devices. An Extended Image Cryptography Scheme (EICS) is a kind of ICS which consists of meaningful shares (compared to the random shares of traditional ICS). In this paper, we propose a construction of EICS which is realized by embedding random shares into meaningful covering shares, and we call it the embedded EICS. Experimental results compare some of the well-known EICSs proposed in recent years systematically, and show that the proposed embedded EICS has competitive image quality compared with many of the well-known EICSs in the literature. In addition, it has many specific advantages against these well-known EICSs, respectively.
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   211 A Protocol for Secret Sharing using Segment Based Visual Cryptography
Sesha Pallavi Indrakanti, Avadhani P S

Abstract

Security is playing a vital role in the life of information. Security has become a requirement in the digital world for maintaining the secrecy of the information. Lots of techniques have been proposed for textual data. Maintenance of secrecy of pictorial data is also equally important. Most of the pictorial hiding goes with pixel based, here a version of Visual Cryptography is presented which is segment-based instead of pixel based. The message which is in the form of numbers is converted into segment based encrypted into two random shares. The decryption process involves the stacking of the two shares. A protocol for encrypting the secret message in to shares using a 7-segment display and 16-segment display is proposed which will enhance the clarity of the decrypted image. It is easier to view the secret images with the human eye by stacking the transparencies.
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