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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (IJCST)-VOL III ISSUE II, VER 5, APRIL TO JUNE, 2012


International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 3 Issue 2, Ver. 5
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   166 A Random generation Network Coding and Homomorphic Cryptosystem based Multipath Source anonymity Routing and Transmission scheme for Wireless Network

G. Naga Pradeep, K. Sushma, K. Yamini, Dr. G. Manjunath

Abstract

One of the important aspects of wireless security is ensuring the anonymity of the session or the transmitting source so as to prevent spoofing and Man in the middle attack. If a session information like source address, destination address, type of data, intermediate node’s MAC address is protected from being ‘leaked’ the network can be provided optimum security against attacks like session hijacking, statistical information extraction and so on. Therefore source anonymity has received tremendous attention by research community. It is of significant importance especially for the wireless networks without any centralized control like wireless sensor network, wireless Adhoc network and so on. In this paper we analyze the security risk model of non anonymous sources and propose a comprehensive random generation based coding technique to ensure efficient source anonymity. We generate multiple node disjoint paths from source to destination and packets are split and transmitted through all the paths with homomophic encryption and packet encoding. The proposed method is simulated with Omnet++. Results shows significant performance improvement in comparison to both AODV, source anonymity protocol and Host Identity Protocol (HIP)( Single Path).
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   167 Evaluation of features & Comparative Study of Machine Translation Systems in Non-Indian Languages

H. B. Sale, Dr. N. K. Rana

Abstract

Language is an effective medium of communication. It explicitly represents the ideas and expressions of human mind. More than 5000 languages exist in the world reflecting linguistic diversity, makes very difficult for an individual to know and understand all the languages of the world. Hence, the methodology of translation was adopted to communicate the messages from one language to another. Various Machine Translation systems have already been developed for most of the commonly used natural languages. With this perspective, we will comapre in brief machine translation systems developed outside India with the help of three sections auch as Machine Translation from English to non-Indian Languages, non-Indian Languages to English and non-Indian Language to non-Indian Language.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-776
   168 Enhancement Techniques for True Color Images in Spatial Domain

I. Suneetha, Dr. T. Venkateswarlu

Abstract

The goal of Digital Image Processing is to process a digital image by means of a computer. Nowadays image processing is an exciting interdisciplinary field as it has wide range of applications in various fields like remote sensing, biomedical, industrial automation, office automation, criminology, military, astronomy, and space. Visual quality of an image may decreases during its sensing, storing, or sending. Image Enhancement basically improves the visual quality of an image by providing clear images. Based on color, images can be classified as gray scale and true color images. True color images represent full range of available colors that are similar to actual object. However a color images occupy more space when compared to gray scale images, they are very much useful for many applications. We reviewed in our previous paper about enhancement techniques for gray scale images in Spatial Domain. This paper extends those enhancement techniques to color images in spatial domain and results obtained gives better approach for its future research.
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IJCST/32/5/
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   169 Load Balancing in Peer to Peer Systems using Scatter Search with ACO

Harnit Saini, Inderjeet Kaur

Abstract

The Load Balancing Problem consists of assigning the load of an overloaded node to another under loaded node with minimum cost. Each node has a limited amount of capacity and each task must be assigned to one and only one node, requiring a certain amount of the node’s capacity. In this paper, the application of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is presented. The Ant heuristic can be seen as an adaptive sampling algorithm that takes into consideration the experience gathered in earlier iterations of the algorithm. Several neighborhoods are studied, that produces good moves without increasing the computational effort. The algorithm proposed in this paper is inspired by scatter search using ant heuristics. The main feature of the hybrid algorithm is to hybridize the solution construction mechanism of the Scatter Search (SS) with Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). In this algorithm, ACO algorithm is used to generate the initial solutions which form the reference set. Within the scatter search framework, after two-solution combination method for the reference set has been applied, ACO method is employed to generate new solutions through updating the common arc pheromone mechanism.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-778
   170 Progressive Image Transmission of Large Images using PHP- CG Library

Rohit Sharma, Dr. Sanjiv Kumar Shriwastava

Abstract

Progressive Image Transmission is useful for the images that are large in size and required a time to transmit. The basic idea behind PIT is to transmit the image in progressive manner. Sending the important information part of image first. This can be done by Region Of Interest (ROI), Levels of Detail, Progressive transmission capability, Lossless and lossy image transmission, Drawing a ROI, Region Identification. In Digital Image Processing, Progressive Image Transmission (PIT) plays a great role. In this paper we have used PHP- CG library to transmit and find the PSNR & time taken to transmit large Images over the web.
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   171 Machine Learning: Learning Emotional Behaviour from Natural Facts and Challenges in Emotion Prediction

Hardeep Singh

Abstract

Machine learning is branch of computer science engineering under artificial intelligence. Recognizing emotion from various domains has been a growing area of investigation. Recognition of emotion is background of machine learning. The performance of a machine is depending on its working efficiency. Machine can learn from knowledge, experiences and current given task. Machine need to have ability of evaluating job by itself. If a machine is able to learn from its previous task and experiences, it can handle a new job. Machine learning has wide scope in computer science engineering and significant applications in industrial world. It is a complex task for machine as compared to human. There are various hazards in machine learning. In the study of machine learning an interesting question comes up in mind; is it possible for machine, to think like human? Machine learning, is very attractive and creative field. Emotion detection of this nature is currently an active area for research. Really it will not be less then like a miracle, if machine is able to learn and do as a human brain. This paper presents an approach how a machine can learn emotional behaviour from nature in different environments and challenges to emotion prediction in machine learning.
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   172 Fuzzy Based Software Reliability Estimation

Feroza Haque, Dr. Sanjeev Bansal

Abstract

Software reliability is one of the important factors as described by all the Quality models. In many case we have seen that due software failure many hazardous result has been faced by the world. So a step should be taken to avoid this type of failure and predict the reliability of the software. Many reliability models and integrated tools have been designed for the same purpose. In this paper, we have define a methodology to estimate the reliability on the basis of the external metrics. software reliability and evaluation methods are different approaches for dealing with the problem. The paper will introduce the two models also. We will also introduce the fuzzy metrics that will be used to evaluate the reliability.
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   173 Performance Analysis of Various Multicast Scheduling Algorithms for Input-Queued Switches

K. Navaz, S. Rahmathullah, Kannan Balasubramanian

Abstract

The tremendous growth of the Internet coupled with newly emerging applications has created a vital need for multicast traffic support by backbone routers and ATM switches. Considerable research work has been done on Input Queued (IQ) switches to handle multicast traffic flows. Unfortunately, all previously proposed solutions were of no practical value because they either lack performance or were simply too complex to implement. Internally Buffered Crossbar (IBC) switches and bufferless switches, where a limited small amount of memory is added in each crosspoint of the crossbar fabric, on the other hand, have been considered as a robust alternative to buffer-less crossbar switches to improve the switching performance. However, very little has been done on multicasting in IBC switches. In this paper, we fill this gap and study the multicasting problem in IBC switches. In particular, we propose a novel IBC based multicast architecture along with a simple scheduling scheme named Multicast crosspoint Round Robin (MXRR). Our scheme was shown to handle multicast traffic more efficiently and far better than all previous schemes for both the multicast FIFO architecture as well as the multicast k FIFO queues architecture. Yet, MXRR is both practical and achieves high performance.
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IJCST/32/5/
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   174 Effect of Topographic Correction on Maximum Likelihood Supervised Classificationof MODIS Satellite Imagery

Ravneet Kaur, Sukhpreet Kaur

Abstract

Topographic correction is an important data preprocessing step when Maximum Likelihood classification and quantitative analysis of multispectral data are carried out in mountainous regions. The most commonly used supervised Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC), which assumes that each spectral class can be described by a multivariate normal distribution but accuracy is restrict due to topographic effects. The topographic effect is particularly evident for steep sloped rugged terrain because irregular shape of region causes variable illumination angles and thus diverse reflection values within one land cover type as low reflectance value in shadow areas and high reflectance value in sun illuminated areas. Therefore, Topographic correction methods try to compensate topographically induced illumination variations effect.In this paper, a topographic correction has been applied to MLC on multispectral data are carried out in mountainous regions for analyze the effect of topographic on MLC. The results suggest that the MLC with topographic correction gives more accuracy 85%, kappa coefficient 0.7459 than MLC without topographic correction gives accuracy 79%, kappa coefficient 0.6868.
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   175 Performance Analysis of Web Mining Techniques and Future Directions

Rupam Some

Abstract

Data mining (sometimes called data or knowledge discovery) is the method of analyzing data from different perspective and summarizing it into useful information. For retrieving and analyzing the data from web, web data mining can be used which an important field of data mining of extraction of knowledge from the web. Web data mining can be classified into three distinct categories, web content mining, web structure mining, web usage mining. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the past present and future of each of three categories of web data mining .i.e. web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. Future trends of web data mining research have also been considered in this paper.
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IJCST/32/5/
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   176 Algorithm Designing for Searching in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Network

Rakesh Rathi, Kapil Saini, Sumit Kumar Bola

Abstract

Peer-to-Peer system is now one of the fastest growing and most popular applications. Centralize Peer to peer systems always suffer from the problems of single point of failure, low availability, denial of service attacks. Searching of the required data is a vital issue in both centralized and decentralized P2P network. Many methods have been implemented for searching in P2P network such as Flooding, Random Walk, Expanding Ring or Iterative deepening, K-Walker Random Walk, etc. Some of these generate large traffic while others take long searching time. A probabilistic approach with Two Level K Walker Random Walk for searching has been studied and enhanced in this paper so that these issues can slightly overcome. Advantages of two level walk are further reducing collision of nodes and helping in searching the distant nodes. But it has slightly increased the response time. This disadvantage can be overcome when there are a lot of dull nodes in the network with this enhancement.
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   177 Cryptography: Secure Multisignature Genereation for Group Communication

Neha Chaudhary, Aarti Kushwaha, Manoj Kumar Shukla, Saoud Sarwaha

Abstract

Threshold Multisignature schemes combine the properties of threshold group-oriented signature schemes and Multisignature schemes to yield a signature scheme that allows more group members to collaboratively sign an arbitrary message. The main objective of this paper is to propose such a secure and efficient Multisignature scheme. This paper shows that the proposed scheme eliminates the latest attacks to which other similar schemes are subject. In many applications, a group of members are required generate digital signature. Individual signers remain anonymous, due to the fact that it is computationally hard to derive the individual identities from the group signature. The computational cost for Signature generation and verification is high. Individual signers do not remain anonymous, they are traceable. This ensures accountability, i.e., a participant holds responsible for his contribution in the multisignature. The computational cost is reduced when compared to other schemes. We will use the multisignature in a simple application for sending group messages.
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IJCST/32/5/
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   178 Financial Flow of E-Waste Recycling System

Rohit Heera, Jitender Singh, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract

Electronics Waste or E-waste is a collective name for discarded electronic devices that enter the waste stream or nearing the end of their “useful life”. It consists of obsolete electronic devices such as computers, monitors and display devices, telecommunication devices such as cellular phones, calculators, audio and video devices, printers, scanners, copiers and fax machines besides household equipments such as refrigerators, air conditioners, televisions and washing machines. The biggest concern with E-Waste is the presence of toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, toxic flame-retardants, printer cartridge inks and toners that pose significant health risks. Recycling and reuse of materials are potential options to reduce e-waste. Recovery of metals, plastic, glass and other materials reduces the magnitude of e-waste. E-waste contains plenty of precious materials like gold, copper, nickel, aluminum, tin etc. These materials have reasonable price in the market that makes recycling beneficial for stakeholders. This paper present here provides financial flows of E-waste formal recycling.
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IJCST/32/5/
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   179 EOST-An Access Method for Obfuscating Spatio-Temporal Data in LBS

Gavali A. B, Limkar Suresh, D. S. Patil

Abstract

The pervasive diffusion of mobile communication devices and the technical improvements of location techniques are fostering the development of new applications that use the physical position of users to offer location-based services for business, social, or informational purposes. In such a context, privacy concerns are increasing and call for sophisticated solutions able to guarantee different levels of location privacy to the users. Since the development of location-based services, privacy-preserving has gained special attention and many algorithms aiming at protecting user’s privacy have been created such as obfuscation or k-anonymity.The OST-tree capable of obfuscating the spatiotemporal data of users. The OST-tree requires more storage space and update overhead although it achieves the lower querying cost and higher privacy protection comparing to the TPR-tree. Also it is easy for the adversary to infer a user’s exact position in the obfuscated area if the probability distribution of user’s position is uniformly distributed in case of OST- tree. So this problem can be addressed by proposing EOST-tree (AOST-Tree), a structure that embeds the user’s privacy policy in its node and obfuscates the spatiotemporal data for the probability distribution of user’s position belongs to a region is not uniformly distributed. Because, in real life, the region where a user belongs to depends on many factors related to geography.
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IJCST/32/5/
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   180 Emergency Response Planning for Road Accidents in Ludhiana District using Google Maps

Harpinder Singh, Karamjeet Singh, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract

Advancements in the field of Geo-Informatics and Space Technology has made available huge amount of remotely sensed data. The challenge here lies in exploring the data and extracting useful information from it. This paper proposes a useful, cost effective and simple solution for identification of road accident prone areas in Ludhiana, where medical, police and fire brigade facilities are not in close proximity. Precious human lives can be saved by proper management of resources and facilities. Google Maps has used to do the proximity analysis. The accident prone area list has been acquired from the Punjab Police website. The analyst requires only a simple computer connected to the internet, he/she need not procure high resolution satellite data or a sophisticated GIS (Geographic Information system).
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   181 Achieving High Level Grid Network Security Through Advance Virtual Private Networks

Satish Kumar Singh, Dr. Manish Kumar, Vineet Garg

Abstract

Grid computing is emerging as most promising and challenging platform for resource sharing on the web. The rapid growth of electronic data processing, data and resource sharing poses a big challenge for us to secure the grid environment especially in enterprise level setups. Virtual Private Networks can be regarded as a comprehensive solution to this problem as they provide secure access between two trusted networks over a untrusted network i.e. Internet. In this paper, we are trying to explain the advance security implementations which can help in securing our grid network and therefore the secure access to Grid resources.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-790
   182 Application of Neural Network to Overcome Blind Time Problem in CTFM Sonar

Vaibhav Bhushan Tyagi, Kapil Dev Tyagi, Sandeep Dagar, Pushpendra Singh, Gunjan, B. Suresh

Abstract

Continuous Time Frequency Modulated Sonar was proposed to find stationary targets in underwater using frequency modulated signals. In CTFM Sonar, the chirp signal is transmitted periodically. The received signal echo is multiplied with the transmitted signal to get difference frequencies. This difference frequency is used to find the range. But we get wrong difference frequency for some duration of observation time. This duration in which we get wrong difference is known as blind time. Presently Dual Demodulator CTFM Sonar is used to overcome blind time. In this paper a Neural Network approach to overcome blind time problem in CTFM sonar is presented.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-791
   183 Prospects of Cloud Computing Over other Related Technologies

Tarkeshwar Prasad, Arunasish Acharya

Abstract

Cloud computing is becoming a powerful network architecture to perform large-scale and complex computing. Cloud Computing is a new innovative model for enterprise in which information is permanently stored on the servers and also manage, how and when different resources are allocated to the requested users. In this paper, we will survey the concepts and architecture of cloud computing the technologies related to it. The advantages and limitations as well as comparison between distributed, grid and cloud computing is discussed here.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-792
   184 Peer-to-Peer Systems: Taxonomy and Characteristics

B. Lalitha, Dr. Ch. D. V. Subbarao

Abstract

The limitations of client/server systems became a proof in large scale distributed systems for emerging of peer to peer systems, which is the basis for decentralized distributed computing. In peer to peer model each node takes both the roles of client and server. As a client, it can query and download its wanted data files from other nodes (peers) and as a server, it can provide data files to other nodes. This paper provides the taxonomy of p2p systems gives an overview of structured and unstructured p2p systems, also discusses the characteristics and applications of peer to peer systems”.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-793
   185 HMM based Two-Stage Classification Scheme to Improve Online Handwritten Kannada Numeral Recognition

M. Mahadeva Prasad, Dr. M Sukumar

Abstract

The paper proposes a HMM based two-stage classification scheme to recognize online handwritten Kannada numerals. Three sets of writer independent experiments are carried out with 1020 samples for training and 1016 samples for testing. First, experiments are carried out with a single-stage HMM classifier and from the confusion matrix, two majorly confused numeral pairs, and are identified. In the second set of experiments, by employing confusion pair-specific discriminating features, the individual classes of these confusion pairs are disambiguated by two separate two-class HMM based classifiers in the secondstage. In the third set of experiments, the training samples of each confusion pair are separately combined in the first-stage classifier to result in an eight-class problem. Accordingly, the first-stage classifier is trained to generate eight HMM models. Whenever the output of the primary classifier is one of these two combined classes, the corresponding test sample is passed on to the relevant two-class second-stage classifier to resolve the ambiguity. The Fourier transform of a set of features are used in the first-stage, whereas deviation features are employed in the secondstage classifiers. The respective average recognition accuracies of 96.5%, 98.5% and 98.2% are obtained with the first, second and third configurations of classifiers. The recognition performance of the two confusion pairs, and are increased by 5.8% and 3.6% respectively.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-794
   186 Comparative Through Analysis of Histogram Equalization

Rubina. Khan, Madki. M. R

Abstract

The intensity histogram gives information which can be used for contrast enhancement. Histogram Equalization is used in many image processing applications such as medical applications, space applications, biological sciences etc. The histogram equalization could be flat for levels less than the total number of levels. This could deteriorate the image. This problem can be overcome various techniques. This paper gives a comparative of the Bi-Histogram Equalization, Recursive Mean Seperated Histogram Equalization, Multipeak Histogram Equalization and Brightness Preserving Dynamic Histogram Equalization techniques by using these techniques to test few standard images. The method of bi-histogram uses independent histogram over two separate subimages. The method of recursive uses several subimages. Multipeak Histogram Equalization detects the peaks in the histogram and the subimages are formed based on the number detected. The Brightness Preserving Dynamic Histogram Equalization improves contrast while it maintains the brightness of the image. We shall compare the results through the metric parameters of absolute mean Brightness error and peak signal to noise ratio.
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IJCST/32/5/
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   187 Investigation on Apprehension of Worm and Its Block

A. S. A. L. G. G. Gupta, P. V. S. Sarma, T. Maanasa

Abstract

In Internet there are many types of worms (virus) which may corrupt directly or indirectly to our data. Some types of virus are like .exe, .bot. Some types of malicious codes known as computer worms. These will spread the attacks (virus, worms) against the computer networks, without any human interaction it will launch into the computers. The internet worm is the main worm amongst these worms, and it will spread all over the network based on communication. In past views there are many worms which spread all over the network (Morris, Nimda,.) and now a new type of worm is introduced into network that is Active worm which is self propagated across network by pre-generated target list as discovery technique, & these (C) worms is differ from past worms because of these are ability to scan traffic over time. For detection of a worm we want to identify the worm by its characteristics and behavior, after that we analyze worm and detect the worm by detection algorithms (worm characteristics by identify the type of worms). After Apprehension of worms, the next step is block of the worm (avoiding the transmission of worm in network), slow down and stop the worms. The worm can be prevented from being propagated across the network with help of Standalone applications like TCP dump.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-796
   188 An Anonymous Peer-to-Peer Networks of Framework for Profiling User Instant Messaging Behaviors

Harish Babu. Kalidasu, B.Prasanna Kumar

Abstract

The sheer size of e-mail and instant messages received on daily basis by clients using mobile applications has created a usage scenario where users have to be conscious of their safety and manage information effectively in order to derive benefits from online interaction. This is more so in organizations where e-mails and instant messages are frequently used as a means of communication through anonymous peer-to-peer systems (P2P). Using Use-Case schemes, we present a framework for profiling user behaviour on anonymous peer to peer networks. The framework presented is suggestive of employing data mining techniques to analyze entire sets of active and offline e-mails and instant messages sent and received by individual users. The implementation of this framework is expected to yield a recommender system for prioritizing e-mails and instant messages based on usage patterns between contacts and groups to which users belong.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-797
   189 Token Based Approach to Block SQL Injection Attacks: A Way to Secure Query Processing

Dr. R. P. Mahapatra, Subi Khan

Abstract

SQL injection has become a predominant type of attacks that target web applications. There are many reports on intrusion from external hacker which compromised the back end database system. SQL query segments to change the intended application-generated SQL queries. Researchers have proposed various solutions to address SQL injection problems. However, many of them have limitations and often cannot address all kinds of injection problems. iMPERVA have identified 53 SQLi attacks per hour and 1,093 attacks per day In this paper we propose a technique, which uses runtime validation to detect the occurrence of such attacks, which evaluation methodology is general and adaptable to any existing system. To overcome these problems of existing solutions we use link representations which store the valid query structures in terms of an orders sequence of tokens. To perform fast searching among these various lists we start searching in a multithreaded way. To avoid the huge computation over head of string matching algorithm to match two tokens we convert each token into an integer value and store that integer value instead of that token in our database and while searching we simple match these integer values. For finding the correct group of list we use an array representation which eliminates the need of searching the specific group. So in a brief this technique eliminates the need of source code modification along with an improved overall efficiency.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-798
   190 Wireless TCP: TCP in a Mobile Environment

K. Anand Kumar, Dr. S. Srinivas

Abstract

A transport layer protocol such as TCP has been designed for fixed networks with fixed end-systems. Data transmission takes place using network adapters, fiber optics, copper wires, special hardware for routers etc. This hardware typically works without introducing transmission errors. TCP will work perfectly for wired networks. To support mobility TCP require some enhancements However, one cannot change TCP completely just to support mobile users or wireless links but every enhancement to TCP has to remain compatible with the standard TCP. This paper gives overview of classical enhancements to TCP for mobility by using various approaches i.e. Indirect TCP, Snooping TCP, Mobile TCP, Fast retransmit/fast recovery, Transmission/time-out freezing Selective retransmission, Transaction-oriented TCP.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-799
   191 Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) in Wireless Technology

Balpreet Singh, Chandanpreet Kaur, Sandeep

Abstract

In this paper, the developing of IDS method in which the evolving growth of the internet topology and the growth of the internet users which makes the modeling of the network with attack free data is difficult. Real world test has shown overwhelming numbers of false alarms of attack and little success in filtering them out. The simplest IDS are a guard patrol. Guards who walk on the corridors and perimeter of a facility are very effective at identifying attempts of break-in on the premises. If anything goes wrong, they will either raise the alarm or attempt to challenge the intruder. IDS are designed to function like a burglar alarm on your house where these systems should record suspicious activity against the target system or network, and should alert the information security manager or support staff when an electronic break-in is underway. In this work an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a security layer used to detect ongoing intrusive activities in information systems.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-800
   192 Resource Optimality Improvisation in Cloud Environment by Efficiency Enhancement through Two Level Scheduling

Nidhi Purohit, Richa Sinha, Hiteishi Diwanji

Abstract

Resource scheduling is a key process for IaaS clouds. IaaS clouds commonly take Virtual Machine (VM) as scheduling unit, be allocated to heterogeneous physical resources and cloudlets as processing units allocated to virtual machines. The scheduling of VM and Cloudlet with various timing constraints requires dynamic, predictable and exible control mechanisms. The basic goal is to decrease or optimize job execution or turnaround time & decrease or minimize delay time at server side keeping in consideration the threshold time given by client side. To simplify this process, in this paper we propose a policy of two level task (cloudlet) scheduler using time shared at first level and rank (priority) at second level. We have used cloudsim for simulating the proposed scheduling policy.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-801
   193 Cryptanalysis of Stream Cipher: RC4

Bhargvi H. Kamble, Dr. B. B. Meshram

Abstract

There are many cryptographic algorithms that are developed for safe data transfer over a wide network. But these cryptographic algorithms have some drawbacks or the loop holes which are triggered by the attackers to get the data. So we are doing cryptanalysis of the cryptographic algorithms so that the flaws of the cryptographic algorithms can be removed before hand and the algorithm can become more secure. In this paper we will be seeing how RC4 works and different attacks on the RC4 cipher. We also study different cryptanalysis techniques that are applied for RC4. This paper gives a detail study about two different cryptanalysis techniques that are applied on RC4.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-802
   194 Wireless Sensor Network using Bluetooth

Gurpreet Singh, Opinder Singh, Dr. Jatinder Singh

Abstract

The wireless technology is very popular now a days. There are various sensors are used in devices which are connected with the wireless network. Wireless network is used to reduce the cost and reduce the size and low cost consumption of the power. Such devices when organized into a network, present a powerful platform that can be used in many applications. Bluetooth is a low cost, short range, wireless technology with small footprint, low power consumption and reasonable throughput. Bluetooth wireless technology has become global not just as a point-to-point but was a network technology as well. The kernel of this paper, deals about implementation of Bluetooth based sensor networks.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-803
   195 Image Classification Using Elman Neural Network on Master-Slave Architecture

J. V. S. Srinivas, K. Priyadarsini, Dr. P. Premchand

Abstract

Objective of this work is the classification of images using Elman Neural Network (ENN). ENN is one of the simplest supervised multi layer neural networks. We train the network with parallel algorithm on Master – Slave architecture to improve the performance. The performance of both sequential implementation and parallel implementations are evaluated. The parameters include speed-up, optimal number of processors and processing time.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-804
   196 Mobile Advertising Business – The Next Milestone

Uday Pratap, Dr. R. K. Srivastava

Abstract

Mobile advertising can be a new business idea for any mobile operator. In the concept of Mobile Advertising, the network operator can play the role to act like a medium for advertisement. As is the case for a TV channel & a newspaper, a mobile can be thought of as a prospective and direct medium for the advertisers to reach and sell their product. One TV channel or a newspaper can be shared by many people, whereas at a time one mobile is shared by only one person. This personalization characteristic gives Mobile Advertising to be the most promising advertisement medium. Giving an advertisement to any TV channel or in a daily newspaper it is not possible to claim how many people actually view the advertisement and so comes the hit rate. But of course if there is no technical problem then when a mobile promotion finishes the advertisers of course will know how many people actually viewed their ad. So from the advertisers’ viewpoint Mobile Advertising will be more quantifiable.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-805
   197 An Experiment Design-Splitting Integral Attributes into Groups Using an Optimal and Worst Distribution Policy in Database Management Systems

Jaspreet singh, Dr. Kailash Chandra

Abstract

A psychologically compliant approach to similarity yields a set of results, in the relevant portion of the ranking list, dissimilar to that obtained by other commonly used methods. In this context, a psychologically compliant method produces the set of results that is consistent with people’s judgments of similarity and, therefore, desirable. Any deviation from such an approach distorts this set. To evaluate the hypothesis we implemented SASA (Sensitivity Analyzer for Similarity Assessments), a software prototype used as a test bed for the examination of different processing strategies for an exhaustive set of similarity queries.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-806
   198 A Comprehensive Framework for Packet Injection Avoidance in MANET without Authorization

G. SaiRani, P. Nikhitha, D. Chandrika, Dr. G. Manjunath

Abstract

Mobile Adhoc network is an on the fly network with a dynamic topology where the node association changes frequently. Such a network is vulnerable to different types of attacks as there is no centralized mechanism for providing the security and due to the fact that the network uses 802.11 based MAC layer which is considered to be a very weak in terms of security and data integrity. Packet injection is one of the most severe attack types in such a network. A Packet injection is type of attack where by any unauthenticated node injects malicious packets along with the valid data or control packet. Detection of such injections are difficult and requires huge processing which drains limited battery resources of MANET. Therefore in this paper we propose a unique technique for minimizing packet injection attack with the help of traffic splitting and fair resource reservation policy for the neighbors. The method is compared with conventional cryptosystem based transmission and it is shown that the performance of the proposed system is way better in preserving network lifetime while ensuring better protection against packet injection attacks.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-807
   199 A New Approach to Extend the WSN Lifetime with the Enhancement of Leach Protocol

Usha Rani, Amanpreet Kaur

Abstract

One of the important issues in wireless sensor network is the inherent limited battery power within network sensor nodes. Minimizing energy dissipation and maximizing network lifetime are important issues in the design of sensor networks. LEACH (low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) is well-known because it is simple and efficient. LEACH divides the whole network into several clusters, and the run time of network is broken into many rounds. In each round, the nodes in a cluster contend to be cluster head according to a predefined criterion. However, since CHs consume more energy in aggregating and routing data, it is important to have an energy-efficient mechanism for CHs’ election and rotation. Our proposed algorithm for cluster head selection is based on max residual energy, minimum distance, and minimum energy. The main purpose of this paper is to develop a mechanism to increase the lifetime of homogeneous sensor nodes controlling long distance communication, node balancing and efficient delivery of information.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/5/
A-808
   200 Host Selection Technique for Data Intensive Application in Cloud Computing

Aniruddhsinh Dodiya, Tushar Champaneria

Abstract

Cloud computing is a combination of parallel computing and distributed computing which is highly scalable. Cloud Computing distributes the computational tasks on the resource pool which consists of massive computers so that the service consumer can gain maximum computation strength, more storage space and software services for its application according to its need. In cloud environment we can find data intensive and compute intensive applications. In data intensive application huge amount of data moves from cloud service consumer to host in the cloud and host to cloud service consumer. Based on the above two considerations, how to select best host for getting resources and creating a virtual machine(VM) to execute applications so that execution becomes more efficient and access cost becomes low as far as possible simultaneously is a challenging task. In this paper, a host selection technique is proposed for data intensive application. The objective here is to minimize overall execution time of the application with the help of which we can get better performance.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-809
   201 Performance Comparison of LMS, SMI and RLS Adaptive Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antennas

L. Surendra, Syed. Shameem, Dr. Habibullah Khan

Abstract

Smart Antenna systems have become a practical reality after the advent of powerful, low cost and digital signal processing components. It is recognized as promising technologies for high user capacity in 3G wireless networks by effectively reducing multipath and co-channel interference. The core of smart antenna is the selection of smart algorithms in adaptive array. These algorithms use different criterion to adapt the system for better performance and steer the beam towards signal of Interest. An algorithm with less complexity, low computation costs, good convergence rates usually preferred. Smart essentially means computer control of the antenna performance. Smart antenna holds the promise for improved radar systems, improved system capacities with mobile wireless and wireless communications through the implementation of space division multiple access (SDMA). This research paper investigates the performance of adaptive beamforming algorithms such as LMS(Least Mean Square), SMI(Sample Matrix Inversion) and RLS(Recursive Least Square) are to be implemented in Matlab.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-810
   202 Character Recognition using Neural Network

Praveen Kumar, Shivangi garg, Sandeep Tiwari

Abstract

This paper presents the affect of different feature extraction methods used in handwritten character recognition system on recognition rate. We also analyze the affect of size of a character being used in input sample of the recognition system. We basically use two methods of feature extraction for each of the character. First, the Histogram projection of row and column and Second using 25 zones of the image and each zone contain with the average of the black pixels. On comparing the afore mentioned methods of feature extraction with its many other methods, its being concluded that these methods height the recognition rate of handwritten character by a single person up to 90%(as compared to others) i.e. providing High accuracy. High accuracy character recognition techniques can provide useful information for segmentation-based handwritten word recognition systems which describes neural network-based techniques for segmented character recognition that may be applied to the segmentation and recognition components of an off-line handwritten word recognition system. Two neural architectures along with two different feature extraction techniques were investigated.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/5/
A-811
   203 MIMO Organization Applying Space-Time Block Computer Code with Cyclic Codes

Vikas Kumar Verma, Neelu Trivedi, Shilpi Pal

Abstract

Multiple-input and Multiple-output, (MIMO), is the use of multiple antennas at both the sender and receiver to improve the communicating functioning. MIMO engineering has pulled care in wireless communications, because it extends important increase in data throughput and link range without additional bandwidth or transmit power. In this research work, MIMO systems with reduced complexity are considered. The space– time block coding, for communication over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas is considered. The scheme is designed by using the cyclic code with rate 1/2 and 1/3, leading to a flexible and exploit of STBC for multiple antenna systems. Our proposed scheme minimizes the average Bit Error Ratio (BER) and betters the system diversity even if only a Maximum Likelihood (ML) receiver is used. The emulation models have been developed using simulation software and send them through a Raleigh channel to analyze the performance in terms of BER vs. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). It has been shown that the Altamonte scheme using cyclic code is extremely robust against MIMO Raleigh melting channel and thus outperforms other transmission schemes.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-812
   204 Solving a Constarint Satisfaction Problem (Csp) By Creating the Association Graph and Extracting the Solutions in Datbase Management System

Jaspreet Singh, Dr. Kailash Chandra

Abstract

This paper defines how similarity assessment to the scene level extends. Geographic scene matching problems (GSMP) present several variations depending on the types of the scene query and the underlying database .virtually irrelevant for simpler levels of representation is how to associate parts of one scene with corresponding parts of another scene. Therefore, it is important to recognize what those parts are under a geographic setting, and what the principles are that should guide the correspondences amongst them. Aspects of geographic domain knowledge are also implicit in the form in which a spatial query is expressed, since different forms of input may suggest alternative distributions of significance to the various components, thereby affecting similarity.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-813
   205 A Method to Improve Energy Efficiency by Leader Election and Packet Classification in MANET

K. Narendra, M.Pavan Kumar, Ch.Tata Nehru, N.Rama Krishnaiah

Abstract

This paper discuses about research in developing general and systematic methods for intrusion detection in MANET and based on the classification elect the leaders in network. A MANET can be defined as dynamic peer-to-peer network that consist of a collection of mobile nodes and are characterized by great flexibility and are employed in a broad range of applications. The key ideas are to use data mining techniques to discover consistent and useful patterns of system features that describe program and user behavior. By using the set of relevant system features to compute classifiers that can recognize anomalies known as intrusions. The performance of the classification algorithms is evaluated under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns for the blackhole, forging, packet dropping and flooding attacks. The results indicate that SVM exhibit high accuracy for almost all simulated attacks. The packet dropping attack is most difficult to detect.
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IJCST/32/5/
A-814
   206 A Survey on Best Scheduling Policies for Multihop Wireless Networks

S.Venkateswarlu, B.Arunkumar, N.Nagakumari

Abstract

Complex networks routing between source to destination is quite difficult. In multi-hop Adhoc network with multiple flows, each having exogenous arrivals at the source, Causes bottleneck problem that leads to delay , so we develop a new queue algorithms to schedule the packets to handle bottle neck problem and to reduce the delay. The delay performance of any scheduling policy is primarily limited by the interference, which causes many bottlenecks to be formed in the network. We evaluate the use of exclusive sets for the purpose of deriving lower bounds on delay for a wireless network with single hop traffic. We further generalize the typical notion of a bottleneck. We define a (K, X)-bottleneck to be a set of links X such that no more than K of them can simultaneously transmit. In this paper, we develop new analytical techniques that focus on the queuing due to the (K, X)- bottlenecks. One of the techniques, which we call the “reduction technique”. simplifies the analysis of the queuing upstream of a (K, X)-bottleneck to the study of a single queue system with K servers.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/5/
A-815