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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (IJCST)-VOL III ISSUE II, VER 3, APRIL TO JUNE, 2012


International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 3 Issue 2, Ver. 3
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   91 Development of a Transmission Overhead Reducing Protocol

Tamisra Kundu, Sananda Bhattacharyya, Dr. Pranam Paul

Abstract

During this time the Internet provides essential communication between tens of millions of people and is being increasingly used as a tool for commerce. Due to the enormous development in communication technology the security of data has now become a very essential issue in data communication network. In order to protect data from unauthorized intruder data must be transmitted in encrypted form. To achieve this goal, network security and cryptography has now become an emerging research area to develop strong encryption technique to defeat the intruder from intercepting the message. This paper presents a block cipher based private key cryptographic technique, which deals with successful encryption of messages with reduction in size without data loss. In this technique, after decomposing the entire binary string into blocks depending on the random number length, each block is subtracted from the block having maximum decimal value and the result after processing through mathematical permutation is used to represent the respective block with same or reduced block size. The reverse process is applied on the encrypted message to get back the original message with original size.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/3/
A-700
   92 Implementation of LMS Algorithm for Acoustic Echo Cancellation

Jayesh D. Ruikar, Dr. S. L. Nalbalwar, Shailesh R. Sakpal

Abstract

The term echo cancellation is used in telephony to describe the process of removing echo from a voice communication in order to improve voice quality on a telephone call. In addition to improving subjective quality, this process increases the capacity achieved through silence suppression by preventing echo from traveling across a network. Two sources of echo have primary relevance in telephony: acoustic echo and hybrid echo. Echo cancellation involves first recognizing the originally transmitted signal that re-appears, with some delay, in the transmitted or received signal. Once the echo is recognized, it can be removed by ‘subtracting’ it from the transmitted or received signal. This technique is generally implemented using a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), but can also be implemented in software. Echo cancellation is done using either echo suppressors or echo cancellers, or in some cases both. Stereophonic Acoustic Echo Cancellation (SAEC) plays an important role in delivering realistic teleconferencing experience. This paper work presents a type of adaptive algorithms to solve the stereophonic Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC) problem.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-701
   93 Usability Analysis and Evaluation

Piyush Jain, Sanjay Kumar Dubey, Dr. Ajay Rana

Abstract

Usability is the ease with which we use any software or hardware. Software usability is concerned with the software only, which is an interdisciplinary field. Now a days the human activity are been automated and so it is required to design software which are easy to use and handle. Software usability deals with the entire above where we study all the factors that will be considered while using and maintaining any software. This paper gives a brief introduction to usability, usability engineering and the different models designed and applicable. This paper will introduce some metrics to measure the usability. This metrics can also be used to compare the performance of different software. The evaluation of the metrics is done by using fuzzy logic based on the inference system.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-702
   94 Architecture Approach for Scalable Encryption Algorithm and Implementation in FPGA

K.Rajasekhar, S.Adilakshmi, Dr. Fazal Noorbasha, T.B.K Manoj Kumar

Abstract

Most present symmetric encryption algorithms result from a tradeoff between implementation cost and resulting performances. In addition, they generally aim to be implemented efficiently on a large variety of platforms. Most present symmetric encryption algorithms result from a tradeoff between implementation cost and resulting performances. In addition, they generally aim to be implemented efficiently on a large variety of platforms. Scalable encryption algorithm is targeted for small-embedded application with limited resources (such as memory size, processor capacity). SEA n, b is parametric in the text, key and processor word size and uses a limited instruction set (i.e. NOT, AND, OR, XOR gates, word rotation and modular addition). And it has a provable security against linear and differential cryptanalysis. This paper includes the conversion of loop of SEA into architecture. in such a way that encryption and decryption process are separated, loop is split into two parts and controlling inputs are removed. By this method it is easy to design in VHDL language, for implementation in FPGA.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-703
   95 A Survey of Defense Mechanisms Against IP Spoofing

Sneha S. Rana, T. M. Bansod

Abstract

IP spoofing serves the purpose of concealing the identity of the sender or impersonating another computer system. This mechanism is most frequently used by the Distributed Denial of Service attacker, since they does not care about receiving response to their attack packets. Packets with spoofed addresses are thus suitable for such attacks. Learning about how and why the spoofing attacks are used, along with few simple prevention methods, can help protect your network from these malicious cloaking and cracking activity. In this paper we will overview various proposed schemes to mitigate the IP spoofing based attacks.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-704
   96 Emotion Recognition from Facial Expressions using Neural Networks

Razia Hassan Malik, Deepak Prashar

Abstract

Automatic facial expression recognition is the kernel part of emotional information processing. The regions of interest for extracting the features from the facial images include eyes, eyes with eyebrows, mouth. In this paper there are two main parts locating the points in the face region to form graph based features and training the neural network to recognize the emotions from the corresponding feature vector. For the first phase, sixteen points are manually located to create graph with edges connecting such points. Subsequently, the Euclidean distances from those edges are calculated and defined as features for training in the next phase. The next phase is using Feed forward networks (FFN), a kind of artificial neural network (ANN), with back propagation algorithm to recognize the emotions like excitement, happy, shocked, confusion, and disgust.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-705
   97 Distributed Data Mining and Multi-Agent Technology: An Integrated Approach

Meha Khera, Dr. Mukesh Sharma

Abstract

Now-a-days many researchers are involved in the research of distributed data mining with multi-agent technology. With the drastic development of network technology and the improvement of level of IT application, distributed database is commonly used. This paper discusses the existing distributed data mining technology and the architecture of distributed data mining system based on multi-agent.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-706
   98 M-Learning: Understanding the Scope and Technologies

Dr. Shrikant G. Jadhav, Dr. G.N. Shinde

Abstract

The growing use of wireless technology and mobile devices put forward the use of mobile devices in the teaching and learning process. Mobile technologies offer new opportunities for learning and enable people to collaborate anywhere. A major benefit of using wireless mobile technology is to reach people who live in remote locations where there are no educational facilities are available. This paper discusses the basic aspects of m-learning. Portability, social interaction, connectivity are some of basic parameters of learning. M-learning is impossible without the use of the mobile devices, Smart phone, PDA, Tablet PC today are popular along with common mobile devices. These mobile devices work on operating systems (OS) such as Symbian OS, Microsoft Windows Mobile, Palm OS, iPhone OS, and Android etc. For mobile application development, Sun Microsystems designed the Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) , an Application Programming Interface (API) to develop software for small and resourceconstrained devices. Scope of Mobile Learning can be found in corporate sector, for education and in rural development. The paper also discusses the M-Learning initiatives in India made by different organizations.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-707
   99 Techniques on FPGA Implementation of 8-bit Multipliers

Prabhat Shukla, Naveen Kr. Gahlan, Jasbir Kaur

Abstract

Multiplication is one of the basic arithmetic operations and fundamental building block in all DSP task. The objective of good multiplier is to provide a physically compact, good speed and low power consumption. To save significant power consumption in VLSI design, it is good to reduce its dynamic power that is major part of total power dissipation. For higher order multiplications, a huge number of adders are to be used to perform the partial product addition. Reduction of adders by introducing special kind of adders that are capable to add five/six/seven bits per decade. These adders are called compressors. These compressors make the multipliers faster as compared to the conventional design. In this paper we present a comparative study of Array Multiplier, Wallace Tree Multiplier, Booth Multiplier for Area, Power, Speed in VLSI design of 8 bit Multipliers.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-708
   100 Analysis of Security Threats in Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)

Mayank Patel, B. V. Buddhdev

Abstract

The VoIP system is build on the IP network, so it is affected by the IP network security problem. It has many security problems because of the security mechanism of VoIP system and other external factors. These effects relate to the following three aspects: confidentiality, integrity and availability. This paper makes a detailed analysis discussed several security potential threats by dividing it into several categories like social, eavesdropping, service abuse, etc. and finally shows how this threats are harmful to VoIP.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-709
   101 A Cross Layer Design Adaptation Model for Multimedia Transmission in Wireless Network

Vinay Kumar, Prabhat Singh, Akhilesh Kumar, Awadhesh Kumar

Abstract

Rapid adaptation of wireless networks continues when it is coupled with the explosive growth of internet. Which further results in the increasing demands of wireless data services? Various new protocols have been developed in OSI layer for the multimedia applications over the recent years. Additionally in the research field, wireless communication and networking occupies centre of attraction in the area of communication networks. User have introduced cross layer design to provide enhanced and better wireless services. In this paper, we specify the challenges in design and implementation of cross layer for multimedia applications over wireless networks. This paper also undergoes through the study of various key features and parameters that should be taken. When attempting cross layer adaptation in wireless networks which involves various new protocols in OSI layer.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-710
   102 A Real Time Industrial Automation System with Task Scheduling

M. Franklin Richard, S. Sudheer Sukumaran

Abstract

Electrical and control systems in missiles and nuclear reactors having critical sections are better implemented, if split into multiple number of tasks. These critical sections will have dissimilar priorities, timing deadlines and thus should be managed by a Real Time Operating System. In this article an embedded platform for industrial automated system is designed with multiple tasks. In order to manage the various tasks evaluated Priority based Preemptive Task Scheduling algorithm in MUCOS2 Real Time Operating System is used. Motor task is controlled by PI algorithm. When an interrupt is created, the corresponding task is executed thus response is obtained in few microseconds and the corresponding task output are displayed on the LCD. Consequently, with the sensor value, processing speed and timing constraints of the task scheduled, the automated system is functioning with rapid task execution context under multitasking environment.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-711
   103 Illuminant Invariant Face Recognition by the Fusion of Incremental and Artificial Neural Network Approaches

Linda Sara Mathew, A.C.Ramesh

Abstract

Dimension reduction is critical for face recognition applications as the data dimensionality is much higher than the size of the training set, leading to the small sample size problem. The issue of singular scatter matrices has been mitigated by GSVD and Incremental approach overcomes the scalability problem. In this paper, an incremental algorithm ILDA-GSVD has been used for generating the projection matrix and neural network classifier discriminates the face images.This method consists of preprocessing, dimension reduction, feature extraction and classification using neural network.Several methods are adopted to standardize the faces illumination reducing the variations for further features extraction; which are extracted using the image phase spectrum of the histogram equalized image. The incremental approach proved efficient compared to the batch method both in terms of misclassification and time even when a few samples of images are available and neural classifier further reduced the misclassification caused by not-linearly separable classes. The proposed method was tested on both feret and orl face databases. Evaluation results show that the proposed feature extraction scheme, when used together with the neural network classifier, provides a recognition rate of 92% and a verification error lower than 0.04%.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/3/
A-712
   104 FPGA Implementation of 4-Bit Multipliers

Jasbir Kaur, Prabhat Shukla, Naveen Kr. Gahlan

Abstract

Multiplication is one of the basic arithmetic operations and fundamental building block in all DSP task. The objective of good multiplier is to provide a physically compact, good speed and low power consumption. To save significant power consumption in VLSI design, it is good to reduce its dynamic power that is major part of total power dissipation. In this paper we present a comparative study of Array Multiplier, Wallace Tree Multiplier, Booth Multiplier for Area, Power, Speed in VLSI design of 4 bit Multipliers.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/3/
A-713
   105 Effective Resource Provisioning in Hybrid Cloud Environment

Rajkamal Kaur Grewal, Pushpendra Kumar Pateriya

Abstract

Cloud computing is to improve resource utilization by sharing available resources to satisfy multiple requests effectively and efficiently. The Private Cloud with confidentiality data manage according to users need. But the scalability of the private cloud limited. If the private clouds are busy in fulfilling other requests then new request cannot be fulfilled. The new requests are kept in waiting queue to process later. It take lot of delay to fulfill these requests and very costly. In this paper the Rule Based Approach and Non-Rule Based Approach of Resource provisioning defined. Rule Based Resources Manager proposed for the Hybrid environment, which increase the scalability of Private cloud on-demand and reduce the cost. Provide the services to user in time (Reduced the wastage of time) and reduce the wastages of resources. Examined the performance of Resource Manager by using CloudSim on the basis resource utilization and cost in hybrid cloud environment.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-714
   106 Reducing Handoff Failures in Cellular Network by Predicting Its Future Move

S. Malathy, T. Ravichandran

Abstract

Mobility management and bandwidth management are two major research issues in a wireless cellular network. Mobility management consists of two basic components: Location Management and Handoff Management. To provide QoS to the users, Handoff is a key element in wireless cellular networks. It is often initiated either by crossing a cell boundary or by deterioration in the quality of signal in the current channel. In this paper, a new admission control policy for cellular mobile network is being proposed based on the prediction of the mobile user’s next location. Location Prediction is made by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The Scheme proposed in this paper provides good accuracy of prediction. Call admission control algorithm defined here reduces the two important QoS parameter in cellular networks are Handoff Call Blocking Probability (HCBP) and Handoff Call Dropping Probability (HCDP). In this paper, it is shown that when HCDP is controlled, the HCBP is also controlled to a minimum extent while maintaining lower blocking rates for new calls in the system.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-715
   107 Administrating Very Large Databases and Data Warehousing

Trunal Patel

Abstract

Major libraries have large collections and circulation. Managing libraries electronically has resulted in the creation and management of large library databases. The interconnection of libraries and sharing resources across libraries has resulted in the management of very large databases. Most large and/or multinational industries worldwide have exploited such opportunities by applying data warehouse technology to their data repositories to discover knowledge that had helped them to gain competitive advantage through decision making. The same can be done for libraries using the available large databases. This paper identifies the changes that had taken placed in libraries due to technology and how the data warehouse technology could assist them to discover knowledge and improve services.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-716
   108 A Comprehensive Review on Support Vector Rule Extraction

V.Siva Nagi Reddy, M.Chandana, S.Chinna.Gopi

Abstract

Support Vector Machines (SVM) is shown to be excellent generalization capabilities when compared with other classifiers on various applications. Despite of these generalizations ability they are not capable enough in providing explanation or comprehensibility over the obtained predictions. To alleviate this problem, methods for extracting rules from support vector machines are now a day evolving. This paper reviews the methods that are available to extract rules from support vector machines with taxonomy. Further, this paper also discusses appropriate evaluation metrics for the assessment of SVM model performance and the rules extracted from it for the given dataset. Finally, this paper concludes with some future research directions.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-717
   109 Population Spatial Analysis and Modeling using GIS

Sanjay Agal, Pooja Devija

Abstract

Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into population analysis and modeling is a growing area that has attracted many educators’ efforts in recent years. Based on the scope of content covered, ICT integration can happen in three different areas: spatial analysis and modeling. This paper elaborates upon the concept of ICT integration, and some emerging question on ICT. Gis can be used for spatial analysis and modeling of spatial data; making them fit for population analyses, its composition, uniqueness, and how they are and will be spatially dispersed. This study was initiated by the need to address the following issues: 1. Which GIS techniques to apply to specific population analysis? 2. Which GIS dimension is fit for which analysis task?
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IJCST/32/3/
A-718
   110 Inhibiting Free Riders in Performance Driven Live P2P Streaming Services

S.Srinivasa Reddy, S.Nagarjuna Reddy, K. Sudheer Babu, Dr. S. Sai Satyanarayana Reddy

Abstract

Conventional TV viewing via cable is evolving to Satellite, IPTV and P2PTV based systems. Commercial peer-to-peer systems like Zattoo, Joost are some reputed systems for P2P live streaming. When most content is live or not, file transfer is better in broadcast based systems. But as the volume of interesting content soars, Internet scale search and delivery beats any local services which are the driving force behind P2P Streaming Services. Previously for performance improvement in such systems receiver-based peer-division multiplexing engine involving repeater nodes to deliver live streaming content on a P2P network was developed. But repeater nodes implementation can only be handled by commercial systems like Zattoo. In a free P2P Streaming Systems perspective, this approach is not cost effective and hence presence of intermediate peers is used for efficient content delivery since huge traffic is the backbone for P2P systems. But the performance of these systems is hampered with the presence of free riders (selfish peers). So we propose to use a new mechanism based on supervision Game, and formulate a mixed Nash equilibrium strategy adopting the supervision game. A balanced supervision cost and peer participation income model is analyzed and implemented along with a limited number of repeater nodes from earlier approaches for an optimized performance in a live free P2P streaming systems.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-719
   111 Avoiding Delay of Analog to Digital Conversion in Microcontrollers

Geetansh Arora, Pridhi Arora

Abstract

ADC is required on microcontrollers to convert analog signals from transducers into digital signals so that various control functions can be performed. Analog to digital conversion takes time, this delay can be avoided by converting analog signal to digital repeatedly and updating ADC result register after T microseconds, where T equals the time that ADC takes to convert analog into digital. Whenever CPU needs to read analog value, it can read ADC result register without any delay.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-720
   112 Cost-Analysis of Credit Card Fraud Detection

Khyati Chaudhary, Bhawna Mallick

Abstract

With the growth in Information Technology and advancement in communication channels, fraud is spreading all over the world, results in enormous financial losses. Due to a rapid improvement in the Electronic Commerce, use of credit cards has been increasing in dramatic pace. Since credit card becomes the most popular and common mode of payment, credit card frauds are becoming increasingly epidemic in recent years. It caused an explosion in the credit card fraud as credit card usage is increasing day by day. With the increase of usage of credit card as the most popular mode of payment for both online as well as regular purchase, cases of fraud link with it are also rising drastically. In actual, fraudulent transactions has been scattered with the genuine transactions. As simple pattern matching techniques are not often sufficient to detect those frauds accurately and precisely. Implementation of efficient Fraud Detection Systems (FDS) has thereby become compulsory for all credit card issuing banks to minimize their losses. In this paper, we survey several novel approaches for Credit Card Fraud Detection (CCFD), which combines indications from current as well as past behavior of card holders. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis technology is also introduced which ensures the accuracy and effectiveness of fraud detection.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-721
   113 Behavior Prediction Through Handwriting Analysis

Parmeet Kaur Grewal, Deepak Prashar

Abstract

Handwriting Analysis is described as a scientific study and analysis of handwriting. It is a way of interpreting behavior from peculiarities in handwriting. The scientific name for handwriting analysis is Graphology. Handwriting is often called mind writing or brain writing. All that is part of the mind is reflected by an individual in many ways, writing being one. Professional handwriting examiners called graphologists predict the personality of the writer with a piece of handwriting. Accuracy of handwriting analysis depends on the skills of the graphologists. But manual process of handwriting analysis is costly and prone to fatigue. Hence the proposed methodology focuses on developing a tool for behavior analysis which can predict the personality traits automatically with the help of a computer. In this paper a method has been proposed to predict the behavior of a person from the baseline, the letter slant, pen pressure, letter ‘i’ and letter ‘f’. These parameters are input to the Artificial Neural Network which predicts the behavior of the writer.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-722
   114 An Architecture of Cloud Computing based Online Examination System

Tarkeshwar Prasad, Arunasish Acharya

Abstract

With the advancement in information and communication technology, the need for change in traditional examination system arises. Traditional examination system is being replaced by online examination system. Cloud computing is becoming a powerful network architecture to perform large-scale and complex computing. In this paper, we will propose architecture for an online examination system based on cloud computing concept.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-723
   115 Complete Qualified Significant Wavelet Tree Quantization for Image Watermarking

S.Maruthuperumal, G.Rosline Nesakumari, Dr.V.Vijayakumar

Abstract

Newly to improve the compression of significance maps of wavelet coefficients, a new data structure called Wavelet Tree (WT) is introduced. Few researchers used the concept of wavelet tree data structure, and developed efficient compression algorithms. The present chapter extends the study on wavelet trees and developed new concepts based on wavelet tree data structures to address the problem of 1) obtaining the best image quality for a given bit rate, and 2) to render the watermark more resistant to frequency based attacks, i.e., to achieve high robustness. The proposed CQSWT made an effective use of multiresolution representation, to improve the compression rate of significance maps of wavelet coefficients. The experimental results indicate high robustness and better quality of the proposed method with various attacks when compared with existing methods.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-724
   116 Review on Resource Allocation and Mobility Prediction Schemes in Cellular Networks

Abhishek Kumar Gupta, Dr. B.K. Gupta, Dr. Mohan Lal

Abstract

As the growth of mobile users increasingly in the present environment where each service imposes different requirements and because of limited resources available, there is a need to efficiently use the resources available. The quality of service can be maximized by efficient use of these resources. Provision of smooth service to multimedia applications in cellular networks depends on the way of handling calls during handoff. Sufficient resources must be provided for handoff connections when a Mobile Station (MS) moves from one cell to another. Effective allocation of resources can be achieved when the exact future path of MSs is known in advance. Mobility prediction schemes can be employed which is used to determine the cell (s) where a MS will likely visit in the near future. In this paper, we present an extensive survey of resource allocation and mobility prediction schemes in the resource reservation process. The QoS provisioning and resource utilization for multimedia services in wireless/mobile networks are also reviewed.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-725
   117 Energy Efficient Cluster Cooperative Caching for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

P.Kuppusamy, Dr.B. Kalaavathi

Abstract

Caching is an imperative approach used to improve the data availability by sharing the cached data in wireless mobile network. But, the cache is to be updated frequently to provide recent contents to the nodes due to the high mobility. This mobility leads to the connectivity failure among mobile nodes. The mobility and connectivity failure causes more overhead and latency respectively. The mobility prediction of the nodes reduces the mobile disconnection that reduces the data access latency. This paper proposed Energy Efficient Cluster Cooperative Caching (EECC) in that network is partitioned into non overlapping clusters and the cluster head is elected based on the energy level, mobility and connectivity. The hot data items in the cluster and its neighboring clusters have cached in the Local Cache Table (LCT) and the Global Cache Table (GCT), and updated periodically to maintain the consistency of cached data. Thus the efficient cluster head election and the cache updation decreases the latency, and frequent overheads in the network. Our simulation results shown that EECC approach reduces the latency, overhead than existing approach by increasing cache size and mean query generating time respectively.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-726
   118 Paper Removed Due to Copy right Issue
   119 A Review on V-blast Detection Algorithm’s for MIMO Wireless Communications

Shankar.P, Dr. S.A Hariprasad, Jayanthi P.N

Abstract

Multiple-Input–Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless systems use multiple antenna elements at transmit and receive to offer improved capacity and data rate over single antenna topologies in multipath channels. In such systems, the antenna properties as well as the multipath channel characteristics play a key role in determining communication performance. This paper discusses different V-BLAST detection schemes employed in MIMO systems. Issues considered include Bit Error Rate (BER), channelcapacity with and without water-filling algorithm and number of Floating Point Operations (FLOPS) required for detection. Among the different detection schemes an improved square-root algorithm for V-BLAST based on efficient inverse cholesky factorization outperforms other detection algorithms in terms of the number of Floating Point Operations (FLOPS) required for detection of the transmitted symbols. The algorithm is faster than the existing efficient V-BLAST detection algorithms.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-728
   120 Enhanced Fuzzy Adapted Distance Based Non-Linear Interpolation Technique for Zooming Grayscale Images

Sanyam Anand, Shveta Chadda

Abstract

Today, digital image processing is one of the swiftly emergent technologies. Zooming operation plays an important role in digital image processing. This paper introduces a non-linear fuzzy adapted distance technique for zooming Grayscale images which is more efficient than existing fuzzy linear interpolation techniques. The concept of non-linearity implemented with the help of construction of new FRBS (fuzzy rule base system) which consists of four inputs, one output and 256 rules. Thus the resulted image produces more clarity, smoother and less noisy images by taking into consideration more number of pixels than the linear techniques.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-729
   121 Routing Techniques in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs): An Analytical Review and Concerned Challenges

Dr. Ajay Jangra, Nisha Arora

Abstract

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless, infrastructure less, self-configuring, dynamic topology, lower range, lower power network where all the nodes act as router as well as hosts. MANETs having dynamic topology are themselves responsible for finding the route to other nodes for communication. From the past few years mobile ad hoc networks have gained attention of many researchers because of some issues present in it that need serious considerations. Routing is one of the main issues of concern in this paper, we present some of existing routing protocols and challenges faced by those routing protocols. Comparative analysis of various flat routing protocols and hierarchical routing protocols along with their advantages and disadvantages is depicted.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-730
   122 Study of Security Attacks and Challenges on Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

C. V. Anchugam

Abstract

A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a self-organizing, infrastructure less, multi-hop network. The wireless and distributed nature of MANETs poses a great challenge to system security designers. Although security problems in MANETs have attacked much attention in the last few years, most research efforts have been focused on specific security areas, such as establishing trust infrastructure, securing routing protocols, or intrusion detection and response, none of the previous work proposes security solutions from a system architectural view. In this paper, we discuss security issues for types of attacks in different layers, challenges and their challenges current solutions in the mobile ad hoc network. Although security issues in MANETs have been a major focus in the recent years, the development of most secure schemes for these networks has not been entirely achieved till now.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-731
   123 A DC Motor Speed Controller using Visual Basic

Remya Ravindran, Arun Kumar

Abstract

Motor control are realized with two approaches:Hardware and Software through the application of Visual Basic(VB). A permanent magnet moving coil dc motor adjustable speed drive control is implemented with hardware setup and software program in Visual Basic code. The main feature used in Hardware and Software is their peripherals (parallel port peripherals) are used to interface with hardware and software medium like simulation. We have connected the hardware with the 32 bit parallel port cable to the CPU. As we increase the load on the DC motor the voltage of the Driver circuit decreases, which leads the connected LEDs to glow showing that we have reached to the peak value of the motor RPM. The output of the given system is achieved from the GUI, the coding is done in the Visual Basic.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-732
   124 Discovery of Neighbor in Asynchronous Sensor Networks Continuously

I. S. Raghuram, B. Lepakshi Reddy, M. Kiranmayee, K. S. G. Chandra Shekhar

Abstract

Mostly Sensor Networks are static, however , node connection is exposed to changes because of failure in wireless communication, transmission power changes, or loss of synchronization between colleague nodes. Accordingly, even after a sensor is alert of its coming it must continuously maintain its vision, a process called continuous Neighbor Discovery. Here we differentiate both continuous neighbor discovery and initial neighbor discovery and we focus on latter as a collective task of all nodes in a connected segment and to reduce power utilization we use a simple procedure that decreases time taken to find hidden sensors.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-733
   125 In Distributed Cryptography, Multiple Key Refreshment is Performed by Refreshment Protocol

Rashmi Singh, Satya Verma

Abstract

Share refreshing must tolerate missing sub shares and erroneous sub shares from compromised servers. A compromised server may not generate any sub shares. However, as long as correct servers agree on the set of sub shares to use, they can generate new shares. Proactive security system allows refreshing all shares. Refreshment protocol allows refreshing all shares by using AES, DES and blowfish cryptography function which is available on the server. To keep a protocol consistency, all share holders must cooperative with its procedure. Threshold cryptography is a novel approach for distribution of trust. Firstly we generate trust by using threshold cryptography and then apply refreshment protocol on it’s for refreshing key. In this paper, we have developed refreshment protocol within each node to refresh all sub share which is distributed by threshold cryptography and also threshold value is decided for each and every node because refreshment of key is depend on it.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-734
   126 Implementation of Gurmukhi to Braille

Vandana, Rupinderdeep Kaur, Nidhi Bhalla

Abstract

Braille is the language used by the blind people for studying. This also helps them to stand with the other people in this technological world. Basically, there are different grades of the Braille like grade 1 grade 2 and grade 3. As per the concern of this paper, it only describes grade 1. Grade 1 is called the starting version of Braille in which we do letter by letter translation of words. In this paper, I am going to describe the implementation of a system which mainly works on grade 1 for the conversion of Gurmukhi to Braille. This paper also describes the methodology of the system. The methodology tells flow of system. Then finally output of the system is tested.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-735
   127 A Novel Approach for Protein Structure Prediction using Back Propagation Neural Network

Rojalina Priyadarshini, Nilamadhab Dash, Samita Rout

Abstract

One of the foremost tasks of biology is to understand the relationships between the various genes and the protein, they encode. Understanding the protein structures is vital to determine the function of proteins. The information about its confirmation can provide essential information for ‘Drug Design’,’ Protein Engineering’, ‘disease diagnoses, ‘Breast Cancer Prognosis’. The approaches, like Artificial Neural Network in soft-computing and Statistical methods like Support Vector Machines are used for protein structure prediction. Artificial Neural Network is only capable of capturing vectorial data and for nonlinear classification its architecture is very complex and time-consuming. In contrast to it, Support Vector Machine is a linear classifier which generates a representation of non-linear mapping from protein sequence to protein fold space. SVM is characterized by fast training, so computationally efficient. This work is an investigation of protein secondary structure prediction problem by traditional learning techniques such as Artificial Neural Network where Back propagation algorithm is used for learning. It measures the efficiency and accuracy of the machine learning methods through Mean Square Error.
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IJCST/32/3/
A-736
   128 A Novel Algorithm for CBIR

Amandeep Kaur

Abstract

To improve the retrieval accuracy of content-based image retrieval systems, research focus has been shifted from designing lowlevel feature extraction algorithms to reducing the ‘semantic gap’ between the visual features and the human perceptron. With the advancement of internet, and availability of image capturing devices such as digital cameras, image scanners, the size of digital image collection is increasing rapidly today’s. It is used in different application areas such as for remote sensing, fashion, crime prevention, and publishing and in medicine etc. In this paper we are reviewing some current techniques and proposed an algorithm to reduce the semantic gap in CBIR system. The algorithm is used to convert DICOM images into jpg by using DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) in matlab. It is a lexical study involved in the medical domain using medical ontology.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/3/
A-737
   129 Exploiting Dynamic Resource Allocation for Efficient Parallel Data Processing in the Cloud

D. Prasad, Fathima Zehra, S.V.Hemanth

Abstract

In recent years ad-hoc parallel data processing has emerged to be one of the killer applications for Infrastructure-as-a- Service (IaaS) clouds. Major Cloud computing companies have started to integrate frameworks for parallel data processing in their product portfolio, making it easy for customers to access these services and to deploy their programs. However, the processing frameworks which are currently used have been designed for static, homogeneous cluster setups and disregard the particular nature of a cloud. Consequently, the allocated compute resources may be inadequate for big parts of the submitted job and unnecessarily increase processing time and cost. In this paper we discuss the opportunities and challenges for efficient parallel data processing in clouds and present our research project Nephele. Nephele is the first data processing framework to explicitly exploit the dynamic resource allocation offered by today’s IaaS clouds for both, task scheduling and execution. Particular tasks of a processing job can be assigned to different types of virtual machines which are automatically instantiated and terminated during the job execution. Based on this new framework, we perform extended evaluations of MapReduce-inspired processing jobs on an IaaS cloud system and compare the results to the popular data processing framework Hadoop.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/3/
A-738
   130 An Efficient Approach for Master Slave Structural Design for Large Data Base Design

Neha Saxena, Niket Bhargava, Urmila Mahor

Abstract

At this time, Association ruling acting an important role. The purchasing of one product when an additional product is purchased represents an association rule. The Apriori algorithm is the basic algorithm for mining association rules. The increasing importance of data stream arising in a wide range of complex applications has led to the extensive study of mining frequent patterns. Mining data streams poses many new challenges between which are the one-scan nature, the uncontrolled memory requirement and the high arrival rate of data streams. This paper describes a new approach based on Master-Slave architecture. It uses Hybrid approach – a combination of bottom up and top down approaches for search repeated item sets. It reduces the time in use to find out the support count of the item sets. The Prime number based demonstration offers the flexibility for testing the validity of met rules and provides reduction in the data complexity
Full Paper

IJCST/32/3/
A-739