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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (IJCST)-VOL III ISSUE II, VER 2, APRIL TO JUNE, 2012


International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 3 Issue 2, Ver. 2
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   46 Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) Reception and Transmission for LTE-Advanced/4G

Satnam Singh, Amit Kumar, Dr.Sawtantar Singh Khurmi, Tanvir Singh

IJCST/32/2/
A-655
   47 Advanced Pattern Based Merge Sort With Pooling
Shanti Swaroop Moharana, Satya Prakash Sahoo, Dr. Manas Ranjan Kabat

Abstract

Sorting is the arrangement of records or elements in some mathematical or logical order. Merge sort is one among many sorting techniques. Several improvements on the merge sort procedure are done by different researchers that require less space for auxiliary memory and less number of conditions checking. In this paper, a new merge-sort technique is proposed which uses the design patterns to reduce computational complexity of swapping operation and memory usage. The order of settlement of elements is recorded by various design patterns and then merging of one phase of elements with another is replaced with chunk merging. The proposed technique uses the design patterns to create a memory pool of data to sort data. This algorithm has been implemented in JAVA and it is observed that the proposed algorithm performs better than all existing merge sort algorithms.
Full Paper

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A-656
   48 Frequent Web Access Pattern Mining for Web Users using Query Logs
R.Umagandhi, Dr.A.V.Senthilkumar

Abstract

Search engines are used to retrieve the useful and relevant information from the web. When the user submits the query to the search engine, it records the access in query log file. The performance of the search engine is improved by mining the query log files. In this paper we propose a method to cluster the web users based on their query interest and access patterns. The proposed algorithm cleans the query log file, retrieve the users and their sessions, Generate the query cluster and find the relationship between the different users and they can share their profile like the users with same interest share their profiles in the social networks.
Full Paper

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A-657
   49 Security Issues in P2P Network using Analysis of Streaming Services
Dr. A. Rengarajan, Dr. R. Sugumar

Abstract

A P2P network is a special type of computer network that exhibits self-organization, symmetric communication, and distributed control. P2P streaming systems can be classified into P2P live streaming systems and P2P VoD systems. P2P live streaming systems can be categorized into tree-based P2P live streaming systems and mesh-based P2P live streaming systems. VoD services allow users to watch any point of video at any time. Depending on the forwarding approaches, P2P VoD systems can be categorized into: 1) buffer-forwarding systems, 2) storage-forwarding systems, and 3) hybrid-forwarding systems. Next, we examine different ways that P2P networks are often attacked, including denying services, contaminating the network, and compromising personal information of the peers. Finally, we analysis the security issues that occur in the underlying p2p routing protocols, as well as trust issues in p2p applications.
Full Paper

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A-658
   50 A Survey on Distributed Denial of Service Attacks: Classification of Attacks and Countermeasures
Achin Jain, Arvind Panwar, Manish Kumar

Abstract

Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attacks have become a large problem for users of computer system connected to the internet. DDOS attackers hijack secondary victim systems using them to launch a coordinated large-scale attack against primary victim systems. As new countermeasures and solutions are emerging constantly, attackers are also developing new methods to counter these preventive measures. In this paper, we classify various DDOS attacks, countermeasures to prevent DDOS attacks and characterize the scope of DDOS attacks and losses they cause to the various industries.
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A-659
   51 Network Traffic Management using Mobile Agents
Patil S.V., Naik N.A., Khamitkar S.D.

Abstract

Now a days communication Networks consist of mixed networks, therefore controlling and managing the traffic in networks will be difficult task. Managing Network activities for distinct networks need collecting and investigating huge amount of data. Depending on the activities involved in the communication system, decisions must be made at separate times and the instantaneous requirements for various types of traffic must be set immediately. Normal network management follows a central approach thus the processof data collection and the analysis is usually involves huge transfer of data. This normally generates overcrowding in the area around network stations and it result into lack of scalability, especially if they are connected by Wi-Fi links. Therefore, one should have a model of distributed and able network with mobile agents that can investigate data and make decisions in order to maintain the consistency and eminence of the service for the end users. Mobile Agents can move across the networks, and by using load balancing method frequently , they can distribute the load over the network. In addition, mobile agents can make decisions in order to lower the network traffic. This paper aims at encapsulating a few of the solutions and also provides an overview of a few implemented architectures for the security in systems using these mobile agents.
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A-660
   52 Uncertain Data Clustering: Voronoi Diagram & R-Tree Index
Shipra Saxena, Neetesh Gupta, Amit Sinhal

Abstract

We study the problem of clustering uncertain objects whose locations are described by probability density functions (pdf). We show that the UK-means algorithm, which generalizes the k-means algorithm to handle uncertain objects, is very inefficient. The inefficiency comes from the fact that UK-means computes Expected Distances (ED) between objects and cluster representatives. For arbitrary pdf ’s, expected distances are computed by numerical integrations, which are costly operations. We propose pruning techniques that are based on Voronoi diagrams to reduce the number of expected distance calculation. These techniques are analytically proven to be more effective than the basic boundingbox- based technique previous known in the literature. We conduct experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our pruning techniques and to show that our techniques significantly outperform previous methods.
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A-661
   53 A Nobel Extension of UML for Web Applications using Design Patterns
Arvind Kaur, Yadwinder Kaur

Abstract

These days web technology spreading its wings. Till date a lot of research work has been carried out to extend the UML for web technology. But, still there are rooms vacant to continue research work providing extension to UML. The proposed paper begins with the idea of design patterns that exists in websites. There are certain patterns that repeat again and again in web applications. The proposed paper purpose is to find those repeating patterns and models them in order to save time and effort if that recurring problem again and again in web applications. This paper extending UML to model the web application keeping in mind repeating patterns with different symbols so that other users or readers can know that which part of this web application is reusable and maintainable. By reusing, time and efforts are saved because it is senseless to start from scratch every time that problem occurs.
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A-662
   54 Review of Scanned Document Skew Detection and Correction Techniques
Deepak Kumar, Dalwinder Singh

Abstract

During document scanning, skew is inevitably introduced into the in- coming document image. Skew is any deviation of the image from that of the original document, which is not parallel to the horizontal or vertical. Skew Correction remains one of the vital parts in Document Processing. Many methods have been proposed by researchers for the detection of skew in binary image documents. The majority of them are based on projection profile, Fourier transform, cross-correlation, Hough transform, nearest neighbour connectivity, linear regression analysis and mathematical morphology. In this paper, we reviewed the various techniques for skew detection in document images and their advantages and disadvantages.
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A-663
   55 New Watermarking Technique Based on DWT and SVD
B.Hari Krishna, D.Raju, K.Anjaneyulu

Abstract

During the past decade, with the development of information digitalization and internet, digital media increasingly predominate over traditional analog media. However, as one of the concomitant side-effects, it is also becoming easier for some individual or group to copy and transmit digital products without the permission of the owner. The digital watermark is then introduced to solve this problem. Based on DWT and SVD a new watermarking algorithm is proposed. The proposed method satisfies the imperceptibility and robustness and some common attacks very well. And the algorithm is robust to the common image process such as JPEG compression,, rotating, cutting, and contrast enhance. Compared with the SVD, the proposed algorithm is DWT+SVD has stronger robustness and faster speed in embedding and extracting.
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A-664
   56 Design a Methodology for Image Retrieval by using Color Structure and Color Layout Descriptor
Shweta Singh, Anand Rajawat

Abstract

Retrieval and recognition of the images is a challenging problem making it an active research topic. In this paper we proposed a methodology “Design a methodology for image matching system based on the CS and CL descriptor” is based on two principal Color Structure (CS) and Color Layout (CL). We know that Color Structure and Color Layout are color descriptor of the MPEG. Both are useful to detect value of the particular color object and also find the structure of the particular color object. In this work first we segment the image into 8×8 blocks system and calculate CS, CL of each blocks. After that we prepared template of each blocks of image and matched with database.
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A-665
   57 Performance of Spatial Mean Filters on Denoising Medical Images for Edge Detection
Somasundaram K, Kalavathi P

Abstract

Noise removal is a preliminary process in many medical image processing algorithms. The Gaussian noise is the most commonly found noise in medical images, which are generated during image acquisition and transmission process. Therefore, denoising should be performed to improve the image quality for more accurate analysis and diagnosis. In this paper the Gaussian noise present in the medical images are removed using spatial mean filters. The performance of these filters are evaluated using the Canny edge detector by computing the edge image difference between the original and the denoised image.
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A-666
   58 Offline Handwritten Signature Verification Approaches: A Review
Sanjay S. Gharde, K. P. Adhiya, Harsha G. Chavan

Abstract

A growing need for personal verification in many daily applications, signature verification is being considered with renewed interest. Handwritten signature is first few biometrics used even before computers. Signature verification is widely discussed using two approaches. On-line approach and offline approach. Offline systems are extra applicable and easy to use in comparison with on-line systems in many parts of the world though it is considered more difficult than on-line verification due to the lack of dynamic information. Offline signature verification system has more attraction because of its necessity for use in daily life routines. This paper presents survey of signature forgery type, features types, methods used for features extraction and approaches used for verification in signature verification systems.
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A-667
   59 An Efficient approach for Content Based Image Retrieval by using DCT and Shape Layout
Anjana Tiwari, Jigyasu Dubey

Abstract

This paper proposed a new simple method of combined DCT feature extraction and shape descriptor that utilize to accelerate the speed and decrease storage needed in image retrieving process by the aim of direct content access and extraction from JPEG compressed domain. Our method first, we normalized and resize the query image by the original database image after the extracts the average of some DCT block coefficients of the image block. The idea of DCT was to decouples the color component of image using YCbCr and transform these into DCT coefficients and measure the similarity of an image with the help of shape descriptor, edge information and morphological operations, to find normalized feature vectors. Now, calculate similarity with combined features of quantized DCT color coefficients and normalized feature vectorts to retrieve an image.
Full Paper

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A-668
   60 E-Campus using Amazon EC2: Deployment on Cloud
Sarath Chalamalasetty, Varun Jajam, Prahasith Katuri, Varun Budda

Abstract

Cloud computing is the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a services over the internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the “cloud” that supports them. Instead of hosting apps and data on an individual desktop computer, everything is hosted in the cloud and accessed using the internet. E-Campus is a education concept by using the Internet technology, it deliveries the digital content, provides a learner-orient environment for the teachers and students. The E-Campus promotes the construction of life-long learning opinions and learning society. Amazon Web Services is one of the cloud providers that provides virtual server instances managed through a web service API with unique IP addresses and host names assigned dynamically and blocks of storage on demand.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-669
   61 Biometric Secure Robotic Vehicle for Banking Security
Krishnakumar K P, Benson Chacko, M Remya, K R Jayachitra

Abstract

The proposed system is a new driverless vehicle which can be used for money transactions between two banks. This one is biometrically secured using fingerprint detection system. The route can be configured by the manager of the bank. For travel it can be provided with real time vision or some obstacle avoidance system for demo purpose. The conditions of route during travel are updated in a web server and it can be controlled by sending MSG through GPRS from the bank itself. This reduces the manpower required for bank money transactions and high security can be offered using fingerprint authentication. . Home robots are designed not only to monitor houses and people, but also to perform domestic chores in a semi-autonomous way; and can be programmed or reprogrammed from distant locations by means of a cell phone. Applications using robots to help disabled or mentally challenged
people with special needs have been explored.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-670
   62 Detection and Removal of Cast Shadow from Digital GrayScale Images using Novel Fuzzy Technique
Sanyam Anand, Rajni Thakur

Abstract

Shadow has always been an obstacle for intelligent transportation system, detection and removal for self and cast -shadows is a challenging task. In order to achieve this goal, edge pixels are computed by using Harris edge detection algorithm followed by background elimination by comparing two edge frames. After getting a foreground image, a fuzzy based novel algorithm is applied to remove the shadowing area of an image where fuzzy rules are used to decide the image columns that are part of the foreground objects or shadows. Experimental results show, this method is good for detecting the edges and also shows good results for cast-shadow removal without harming the self-shadow of object.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-671
   63 Authenticated and Policy – Compliant Internet Routing
Dr. JVR Murthy, Md. Zaheer Abbas, V.Pranav, VVS.Gangadhar

Abstract

Routing is a black art in today’s Internet. End users and ISPs alike have little control over how their packets are handled outside of their networks, stemming in part from limitations of the current wide-area routing protocol, BGP. We believe that many of these constraints are due to policy-based restrictions on route exportation. Separating forwarding policy from route discovery would allow users to select among the possibly many inter-AS paths available to them and enable ISPs to more effectively manage the end-to-end behavior of their customers’ traffic.As a concrete mechanism for enforcing forwarding policy,we propose the concept of a network capability that binds together a path request, an accountable resource principal, and an authorizing agent. Network capabilities are central to Platypus, a loose source routing protocol we are designing,which composes network capabilities authorized by multiple ISPs to construct alternative inter-AS routes that can be independently validated and accounted for on the fly.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-672
   64 An Optimized Approach for Multicast Rekeying
S.Sasikala Devi, Dr. Antony Selvadoss Thanamani

Abstract

For any multicast group communication, group key agreement was found to be a vital challenge because of its dynamic nature. Although many solutions have been proposed to handle group key changes, this paper gives different aspect for rekeying. A new multicast key distribution scheme was proposed to reduce computation complexity by employing MDS codes, a class of error control codes, on a key tree to distribute multicast key dynamically instead of conventional encryption algorithms. But that scheme is managing key distribution in a centralized manner. In this paper we propose a distributed key distribution scheme, using a logical group key structure, PFMH tree, and the concept of virtual user position. The proposed scheme applied upon any single user join or leave and multi user joins or leave event. This approach ensures the forward secrecy and backward secrecy, reduces the rekeying complexity, communication, computation and storage complexity and time cost.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-673
   65 Controlling IP Spoofing Based on Border Gateway Protocols
I.S.Raghuram, D.J Reddy, B.Sujitha, K.Mahesh

Abstract

IP spoofing is the creation of TCP/IP packets with somebody else’s IP address in the header. Routers use the destination IP address to forward packets, but ignore the source IP address. The source IP address is used only by the destination machine, when it responds back to the source. When an attacker spoofs someone’s IP address, the victim’s reply goes back to that address. Since the attacker does not receive packets back, this is called a one-way attack or blind spoofing. To see the return packets, the attacker must intercept them. Inorder to overcome this problem we are using bgp construction and IDPF construction, by using these two types of constructions we are going to control the IP spoofing.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-674
   66 Secured Image Encryption: Evaluation Methodology using Combination of 9’S Complement and One-Time Pad
G. Lokeshwari, Dr. S. Udaya Kumar, G.Aparna

Abstract

In this paper image is encrypted using the concept of one- time pad security encryption scheme and 9’s complement approach. This technique is perfect encryption scheme. As the general tendency of an attacker is high concentration towards key breaking, therefore this approach seems to be complex in attackers view. The unique nature of one-time pad encryption scheme is that it is mathematically unbreakable. Random key stream can be used to provide keys for one-time pad continuously.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-675
   67 SIP Debugger Tool
Y.V.V.N. Vara Prasad, N.Ravi Kumar, M. Venu Gopal, V.Krishna Pratap, G.Buchi Babu

Abstract

Day by day, the number of companies interested in IP Telephony are increasing continuously. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is one of the most popular VOIP protocol that creates, modifies and terminates associations between Internet end systems, including conferences and point-to-point calls. This paper deals with the design and the implementation of a SIP debugger tool that can be used in the validation process of SIP devices. SIP debugger is a software tool that can be used to verify the compliance of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) devices, such as soft phones to the SIP specifications. Different tools are available on the market to conduct a compliance and interoperability validation phase (Example: Wireshark). However, they often have features limited to packet capturing and decoding. The proposed tool, instead, can be inserted into an SIP network and is capable of observing and analyzing, in an automatic way, the communication steps. It operates by executing three subsequent phases. (1). Capturing and filtering the SIP messages (2). Analyzing them and (3). Comparing the message flow with a set of rules. When verification of some rules fails, an Output is reported by indicating the rule that failed and a list of possible causes.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-676
   68 An Efficient and Secure Group Signature Scheme Based on Discrete Logarithm Problem
Pankaj Sarde, Dr. Amitabh Banerjee

Abstract

A group signature is a digital signature scheme that allows members of a group to sign messages on behalf of the group but in the case of dispute only a designated group manager is able to identify the group member who signed the given signature. In this paper, we propose an efficient and secure group signature scheme based on discrete logarithm problem. This scheme is unforgeable,
unlinkable and efficient.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-677
   69 MRC Document Compression using a New Segmentation Algorithms
G.Viswanath, T. Sarath Babu

Abstract

The Mixed Raster Content (MRC) standard (ITU-T T.44) specifies a framework for document compression which can dramatically improve the compression/quality tradeoff as compared to traditional lossy image compression algorithms. The key to MRC compression is the separation of the document into foreground and background layers, represented as a binary mask. Therefore, the resulting quality and compression ratio of a MRC document encoder is highly dependent upon the segmentation algorithm used to compute the binary mask. In this paper, we pro- pose a novel multiscale segmentation scheme for MRC document encoding based upon the sequential application of two algorithms. The first algorithm, Cost Optimized Segmentation (COS), is a blockwise segmentation algorithm formulated in a global cost opti- mization framework. The second algorithm, Connected Component Classification (CCC), refines the initial segmentation by classifying feature vectors of connected components using an Markov Random Field (MRF) model. The combined COS/CCC segmentation algo- rithms are then incorporated into a multiscale framework in order to improve the segmentation accuracy of text with varying size. In comparisons to state-of-the-art commercial MRC products and selected segmentation algorithms in the literature, we show that the new algorithm achieves greater accuracy of text detection but with a lower false detection rate of nontext features. We also demonstrate that the proposed segmentation algorithm can improve the quality of decoded documents while simultaneously lowering the bit rate.
Full Paper

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A-678
   70 Optimization for Standby Power Reduction Control Mechanism Using Bluetooth
Swapnil Pujari, M.R. Madki, Priya Ravale

Abstract

In order to save energy, several countries recently made laws related to standby power consumption. To success this exertion, we should consider not only power reduction of consumer electronics itself but also efficient automatic control in networked home environment. In this paper, a design approach and implementation result of control mechanism for standby power reduction is mentioned. Proposed mechanism has the Host-Agent based structure and uses the bluetooth protocol for communication and security between Host and Agents. This paper verifies reliability of proposed mechanism and reduction effect of standby power; also, implemented devices scenario which is similar to user living pattern. Experimental results demonstrate that in the proposed mechanism, standby power consumption of Agent which is connected to consumer electronics can be reduced by 203mW.
Full Paper

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A-679
   71 New Fuzzy Logic Based Filter for Reducing Noises From Images
Sanyam Anand, Navjeet Kaur

Abstract

The noise present in the image can coat and lessen the visibility of certain characteristics of the objects present within the image. Thus making it unfit for further enhancements. There has been a research on the denoising filters for very long to remove the noise from images. Here, in this paper we propose the enhanced fuzzy classical filter which removes more than one type of noises from images. Traditional mean and median filters are combined to remove more types of noises. Performance of the filter is compared with other filters and the proposed technique has outperformed existing techniques.
Full Paper

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A-680
   72 A Brief Study on Role and Functions of Hospital Information System in Tertiary Care Hospitals
Dr. Md. Kamal Hussain, Md. Jabed Hussain

Abstract

Health Care is a domain wherein no enterprise can afford to compromise with the timely availability & accuracy of information. Every such organization needs a way to collect process and analyze information to provide better services to its customers. Hospital Management System (HMS) has been developed with a focus towards information management. It aims at providing the hospital and medical institution’s management personnel with such tools at their fingertips as would help them to streamline the various organizational activities, such as Patient Registration, Medical Services, Appointment scheduling to Billing and Accounting and Resource Management. The system has been designed to be flexible enough to adjust to the growing requirements of the organization as it is built on top of the latest technology platforms and is a highly scalable Client-Server system.
Full Paper

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A-681
   73 Performance Analysis of MD-5 AND SHA-1 Hashing Algorithms
Dr. Jyoti Mahajan, Sunny Nazar, Sahil Gupta, Ankush Thapa

Abstract

In this current world of internet communication, secure data transfer is limited due to various attacks made on data communication. So there is need of methods which ensure secure data transfer. One of the solutions is using hashing algorithms. This paper makes the performance analysis of MD-5 and SHA-1. The main aim of analyzing MD-5 and SHA-1 is that we want to make a system which uses the strengths of both MD-5 and SHA-1 so as to make data more secure as well as more collision resistant.
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A-682
   74 A Video Steganography Model Based on Least Significant Bit Insertion Method
Navin N. Mittal

Abstract

Information Security is viewed as an important field of research over the last few years. Individual’s confidential data or company’s trade secrets are very sensitive data. To date, many cryptographic techniques are implemented to make meaningless sense of the secret information. If an unauthorized person gets hold of the encryption key, he can easily decrypt the meaning of secret information. This paper discusses another method of securing the secret information known as steganography, where the presence of the information is hidden. In this paper, a video steganographic model is proposed which imposes the concept of secrecy over privacy for text messages in video. In this model, text data is hidden inside a video file of .avi format. The technique used to steganograph the text data in video is the Least Significant Bit (LSB) insertion method. The goal of this paper is to keep the presence of the message secret, or hide the fact that communication is taking place. The model proposed also allows us to hide large amount of secret data in video.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-683
   75 An Approach to Identify a Malicious Node Based on Shared Key Establishment in Ad-Hoc Network
Pijush Bairi, Radha Krishna Jana

Abstract

Ad-Hoc network is a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. The military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their unique properties. One main challenge in design of these networks is their vulnerability to security attacks. We analyze the security threats in ad hoc network and present the security objectives that need to be achieved. In one side, the security-sensitive applications of ad hoc networks require high degree of security; on the other hand, ad hoc networks are inherently vulnerable to security attacks. Therefore, security mechanisms are indispensable for ad hoc networks. In the present work, the security challenges in intrusion detection and authentication are identified and the different types of attacks are discussed. The work proposes a two phase detection procedure of nodes that are not authorized for specific services and nodes that have been compromised during their operation in ad hoc network. The detection framework is enabled with the main operations of ad hoc networking, which are found at the data link layer and network layer. The proposed framework is based on shared key among the nodes in ad hoc network.
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A-684
   76 A Novel Implementation for Data Security using Onion Routing Technique in Distributed Network
Ashish T. Bhole, Savita H. Lambole

Abstract

Onion routing is a distributed P2P application that allows two peers to communicate anonymously over the network. The main focus is to have a practical network application allowing two users to have anonymous communication and at the same time be resistant to many network security attacks. Onion Routing is a technique, which enables users to have anonymous communication and yet is so reliable from eavesdroppers and traffic analyzers. The ultimate goal of an Onion routing protocol is to protect the identities of all of its users with sender and receiver anonymity and sender-receiver unlinkability. The communications in general are bi-directional and real time. Here we have implemented multimedia data security using public key cryptographic technique with onion routing.
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   77 Similarity Model with User- and Query-Dependent Ranking Approach for Data Retrieval
R. Raju, C. Thangalatha legaz, P. Venkadesan, M. Pakkirisamy, S. Md. Haja Sherif

Abstract

With the emergence of the deep Web, searching Web databases in domains such as vehicles, real estate, mobiles etc. has become a routine task. One of the problems in this context is ranking the result of a user query. Earlier approaches for addressing this problem have used frequencies of database values, query logs, and user profiles. But this approach does not consider the Functional Dependencies in database, query with user, correlation attributes for queries, and user profile. In this paper we provide a ranking model based on user similarity with user profile and query similarity with functional dependencies and correlation attribute. The evaluation done by comparing the purposed ranking model with existing ranking model and results are discussed. The usage of functional dependency and correlation attribute increase the performance measure such as response time to a considerable extent. This approach is effective than the existing approach, because the use of functional dependencies reduces the replication of the data and hence prevent the database to be normalized separately, also reduces the storage space of the database.
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   78 An Approach Towards Robust Analysis of Object Oriented Systems
Prashant, Sarika Gupta

Abstract

Use cases are the best approach for capturing a system requirements, in particular, functional requirements, In this paper we have introduced a robust, systematic, use case driven object oriented analysis method that includes three components : Process, Modeling language & a CASE tool for Use case modeling. We have focused on how to find classes i.e. Interface, Control, Entity, allocation of system behaviors to classes & producing class & sequence diagram to document the results of the analysis using the Unified Modeling Language.
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A-687
   79 Medical Image Compression Techniques using Lossless Methods: A Review
Dr. Monisha Sharma, Chandrashekhar Kamargaonkar

Abstract

Digital medical imaging systems like Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) has become a crucial tool supporting both decision making and treatment procedures in medical environments. Advantages come from reduced storage and management costs associated with image data and increased intra and interinstitutional portability of data in communication networks. One of the most important benefits of the digital medical image is that it allows the widespread sharing and remote access to medical data by outside institutions. Mass storage and digital communication systems costs are continuously decreasing, but, as individual digital medical studies become significantly larger, requirements for transmission bandwidth and data storage capacity still exceed available technologies. Image compression algorithms offer the means to minimize storage cost and to increase transmission speed. In medical imaging, lossy compression schemes are not used due to possible loss of useful clinical information and as operations like enhancement may lead to further degradations in the lossy compression. Hence there is a need for efficient lossless schemes for medical image data. Several lossless compression schemes have been proposed.This paper provides a comparison about the application of Digital Imaging and Communication inMedicine (DICOM) lossless compression standards on medical images. This paper gives a brief description about the various lossless algorithms and advancements in this field.
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A-688
   80 Indian Vehicle Number Plate Detection by Image Processing Technique in MATLAB
Rana Gill, Navneet Kaur

Abstract

As automatic vehicle number plate detection has many applications in traffic systems, vehicles number plate detection has been intensively studied in many countries. In this paper, a simple and efficient method is presented which is mainly designed for Indian vehicles number plate detection. The presented method is based upon edge detection with sobel operator, dilation and template matching process. The proposed method has been tested over real images and from the results it shows good performance in number plate detection.
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A-689
   81 Extended XML Tree Pattern Matching: Theories and Algorithms
S.V.Hemanth, S.Keerthi, D.Prasad

Abstract

As business and enterprises generate and exchange XML data more often, there is an increasing need for efficient processing of queries on XML data. Searching for the occurrences of a tree pattern query in an XML database is a core operation in XML query processing. Prior works demonstrate that holistic twig pattern matching algorithm is an efficient technique to answer an XML tree pattern with Parent-Child (P-C) and Ancestor-Descendant (A-D) relationships, as it can effectively control the size of intermediate results during query processing. However, XML query languages (e.g., XPath and XQuery) define more axes and functions such as negation function, order-based axis, and wildcards. In this paper, we research a large set of XML tree pattern, called extended XML tree pattern, which may include P-C, A-D relationships, negation functions, wildcards, and order restriction. We establish a theoretical framework about “matching cross” which demonstrates the intrinsic reason in the proof of optimality on holistic algorithms. Based on our theorems, we propose a set of novel algorithms to efficiently process three categories of extended XML tree patterns. A set of experimental results on both real-life and synthetic data sets demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed theories and algorithms.
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A-690
   82 Working of Nymble & Enymble in Anonymizing Networks to Prevent Misbehaving Users
S K B Raj Kumar Balla, Y.M.S.D. Sastry

Abstract

Nymble is system that provides a blocking mechanism to a server to protect if from misbehaving users. We present several extensions to the Nymble framework for anonymous blacklisting systems. First, we show how to distribute the Verinym Issuer as a threshold entity. This provides liveness against a threshold Byzantine adversary and protects against denial-of-service attacks. Second, we describe how to revoke a user for a period spanning multiple link ability windows. This gives service providers more flexibility in deciding how long to block individual users. We also point out how our solution enables efficient blacklist transferability among service providers. Third, we augment the Verinym Acquisition Protocol for Tor-aware systems (that utilize IP addresses as a unique identifier) to handle two additional cases: (1). The operator of a Tor exit node wishes to access services protected by the system, and (2). A user’s access to the Verinym Issuer (and the Tor network) is blocked by a firewall. Finally, we revisit the objective blacklisting mechanism used in Jack, and generalize this idea to enable objective blacklisting in other Nymble-like systems. We illustrate the approach by showing how to implement it in Nymble and Nymbler.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-691
   83 Soft Computing Tool to Establish a Relation between Slot Length of a Microstrip Antenna and Resonant Frequency
P.Pradhan, D.Sarkar, S.Biswas, P.P.Sarkar

Abstract

In this paper, the design of multi-slot microstrip antenna has been studied. The FEKO®5.5, based on Method of Moment (MoM), is used to determine the simulated results. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used to calculate resonant frequency of the antenna for the given slot length. The results are taken in the frequency range of 1GHz to 3GHz. The simulated results from FEKO®5.5 are compared to the results obtained from ANN model and results are good in agreement.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-692
   84 Exploring on Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling
D. Ravi Raj, M. Srinivas, Madhira Srinivas

Abstract

As enterprise systems, Grids, and other distributed applications scale up and become increasingly complex, their authorization infrastructures—based predominantly on the request-response paradigm—are facing the challenges of fragility and poor scalability. We propose an approach where each application server recycles previously received authorizations and shares them with other application servers to mask authorization server failures and network delays. The design of our cooperative secondary authorization recycling system and its evaluation using simulation and prototype implementation. The results in our approach improves the availability and performance of authorization infrastructures. By sharing authorizations, the cache hit rate—an indirect metric of availability—can reach 70 percent, even when only 10 percent of authorizations are cached.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-693
   85 Tracking Down and Simulating Camouflaging Worm Behavior
Praveen Kumar Relangi, G.Sasi Bhushana Rao

Abstract

Active worms continue to pose major threats to the security of today’s Internet. This is due to the ability of active worms to automatically propagate themselves and compromise hosts in the Internet. Due to the recent surge of peer-to-peer (P2P) systems with large numbers of users and rich connectivity, P2P systems can be a potential vehicle for the attacker to achieve rapid worm propagation in the Internet. In this paper, we tackle this issue by modeling and analyzing active worm propagation on top of P2P systems, and designing effective defense strategies within P2P systems to suppress worm propagation. In particular: (1) we define two P2P-based active worm attack models: an offline P2P-based hit-list attack model and an online P2P-based attack model; (2) we conduct a detailed analysis on the impacts of worm propagation on top of P2P-based systems, and study the sensitivity of worm propagation to various P2P system and attack-related parameters; (3) finally, we propose defense strategies within the P2P system to combat worms. Based on extensive numerical analysis and simulation data, we demonstrate that P2Pbased active worm attacks can significantly enhance worm propagation, and important P2P related parameters (system size, topology degree, host vulnerability, etc.) have significant impacts on worm spread. We also find that our proposed defense strategies can effectively combat worms by rapidly detecting and immunizing infected hosts.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-694
   86 Secure Optimization and Computation Outsourcing in Cloud Computing using Linear Programming
T. Gopala Rao, B. Prasad

Abstract

Cloud Computing has great potential of providing robust computational power to the society at reduced cost. It enables customers with limited computational resources to outsource their large computation workloads to the cloud, and economically enjoy the massive computational power, bandwidth, storage, and even appropriate software that can be shared in a pay-per-use manner. Despite the tremendous benefits, security is the primary obstacle that prevents the wide adoption of this promising computing model, especially for customers when their confidential data are consumed and produced during the computation. Treating the cloud as an intrinsically insecure computing platform from the viewpoint of the cloud customers, we must design mechanisms that not only protect sensitive information by enabling computations with encrypted data, but also protect customers from malicious behaviors by enabling the validation of the computation result. Such a mechanism of general secure computation outsourcing was recently shown to be feasible in theory, but to design mechanisms that are practically efficient remains a very challenging problem. Focusing on engineering computing and optimization tasks, this paper investigates secure outsourcing of widely applicable Linear Programming (LP) computations. In order to achieve practical efficiency, our mechanism design explicitly decomposes the LP computation outsourcing into public LP solvers running on the cloud and private LP parameters owned by the customer. The resulting flexibility allows us to explore appropriate security/ efficiency tradeoff via higher-level abstraction of LP computations than the general circuit representation. In particular, by formulating private data owned by the customer for LP problem as a set of matrices and vectors, we are able to develop a set of efficient privacy-preserving problem transformation techniques, which allow customers to transform original LP problem into some arbitrary one while protecting sensitive input/output information. To validate the computation result, we further explore the fundamental duality theorem of LP computation and derive the necessary and sufficient conditions that correct result must satisfy. Such result verification mechanism is extremely efficient and incurs close-to-zero additional cost on both cloud server and customers. Extensive security analysis and experiment results show the immediate practicability of our mechanism.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-695
   87 Implementing Information Security Depending on Plain Text
Sananda Bhattacharyya, Tamisra Kundu, Dr. Pranam Paul

Abstract

Security incidents are rising at an alarming rate every year. As the complexity of the threats increases, so do the security measures required to protect networks. Data center operators, network administrators, and other data center professionals need to comprehend the basics of security in order to safely deploy and manage networks today. Data likely to be kept hide from all people except from the authorized user. The plain text should be codified by the process of encryption. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a newly developed encryption and decryption technique is used by which we can secure any kind of file. The technique can be implemented on any kind file as it is implemented in bit-level. The strength of the technique is analyzed in this paper. In this algorithm encryption is done by two set of operations applying on substrings alternatively for getting the encrypted text of entire binary stream and the reverse process is applied on encrypted text to get back the original source bit stream.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-696
   88 Implementation of Zero Knowledge Protocol in WSN
Arunakumari Bellamkonda, K.R. Rammohan Rao

Abstract

A critical issue in wireless sensor networks is represented by the limited availability of energy within network nodes; therefore making good use of energy is a must. A widely employed energysaving technique is to place nodes in sleep mode, corresponding to a low-power consumption as well as to reduced operational capabilities. In this work, we develop aMarkov model of a sensor network whose nodes may enter a sleep mode, and we use this model to investigate the system performance in terms of energy consumption, network capacity, and data delivery delay. Furthermore, the proposed model enables us to investigate the trade-offs existing between these performance metrics and the sensor dynamics in sleep/active mode. Analytical results present an excellent matching with simulation results for a large variety of system scenarios showing the accuracy of our approach.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-697
   89 A Novel Voter Verification Method using Web Services
G. Monisha, Dr. M. Ramakrishnan

Abstract

Electronic voting commonly known as e-voting is a term encompassing several different types of voting, embracing both electronic means of casting a vote and electronic means of counting votes. Many electronic voting protocols have been proposed, and both the security as well as the effectiveness has been improved. However, no complete solution has been found in neither theoretical nor practical domains. The existing system uses biometric with smart token and also uses iris pattern as a template, to verify the voter in the election. The main disadvantage of using smart card is with security. Security of the smart card will not be through out the internet and People must believe that the cards are secure. We propose a secure transaction that uses steganography with biometrics systems to increase the voter identification accuracy of voters that make a remote registration. The proposed technique increases the security level. We also use web services that helps multiple users to access the system at the same time without any time delay.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-698
   90 Priority based Traffic Allocation using Queues Networks
M.Revathi, Jeevaa Katiravan

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks face a challenge while transmitting data which is under jamming. Jammer interferes with the physical transmission and affects the traffic in the network. Jamming may occur due to various causes like sending multiple packets through single path or sending multiple packets through multiple paths. It may occur even when continuous noise is generated with sufficient power near the transmitting or receiving nodes. Jammer causes this noise which may also lead to path loss. There are many mechanisms and techniques to overcome this problem. Various source routing protocols like Dynamic Source Routing, AODV are used to route the packets to the path where jamming does not occur. One of the main problems in jamming is Centralized Optimization problem which is solved by using distributed algorithm. Another important technique which is used to solve flow optimization problem is portfolio selection theory which finds the less risky paths so that the packets can be directed towards it. In this paper, we use a protocol to prevent jamming. Our proposed mechanism is Geographical Routing Protocol and queuing manager algorithm which sets priority to the packets that sends it across the nodes.
Full Paper

IJCST/32/2/
A-699