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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (IJCST)-VOL III ISSUE II, VER 1, APRIL TO JUNE, 2012


International Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 3 Issue 2, Ver. 1
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   1 Optimizing Electrical Power in A.C Controllable Motors with Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm
M. H. Molaei Ardakani, A. Khodadadi, A. Sakhavati

Abstract

In this paper the power consumption of an A.C. induction motor was optimized. To achieve this, various parameters of motor and outputs were obtained through tests .by using artificial neural network, the relations between input and output parameters were determined. Subsequently, for obtaining the minimum energy consumption with the maximum output, the parameters were optimized in three cases of maximum load, without load and average load (50% of the load capacity) using the genetic algorithm. Finally, the input parameters optimized values were entered into the trained model and optimized power values were calculated. The obtained values were tested in practice in all three cases and it was observed that the presented method could predict the optimized power for three cases of maximum load, without load and average load with 4.5% of accuracy.
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IJCST/32/1/
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   2 User Perceptions of Web-Site Quality for Banks in Oman
Preeti Shrivastava, M. Balasubramanian, Mithun Shrivastava

Abstract

During the past two decades, Internet has transformed businesses at glocal level. With increased globalization, customization and personalization, Internet Banking has become the need of the hour. Electronic banking channels like ATM, Internet, telephone, and mobile phone have been recognized as alternative delivery channels. Amongst these channels, one of the most significant interfaces is the web interface. More and more banks are strengthening their web presence through improved portfolio of e-banking services rendered online. The objective of this paper was to evaluate perceived website quality of banks in Oman with reference to Internet Banking services. The respondents comprised individual customers who use multitudinous Internet banking services in Oman. A bilingual questionnaire was developed using E-Qual 5.0 to evaluate thecustomers’ perceptions of their bank’s website by evaluating the quality of banking services rendered to them, on the five important parameters, viz.; usability, site-design, information, trust and empathy. The questionnaire was administered on a convenience sample of 300 individual respondents. 155 completed questionnaires were received, yielding a response rate of 52% approximately. The websites of 5 banks, viz.; Bank Dhofar, Oman Arab Bank (OAB), Oman International Bank (OIB), National Bank of Oman (NBO) and Bank Muscat, have been evaluated based on the responses obtained and the results have been compared and reported accordingly. The findings highlighted that banking customers in Oman are reluctant to use Internet banking due to lack of information and trust in the e-banking services.
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   3 Virtual Instrumentation Technique for Detecting and Elimination of Damaged Eggs
K.Phaninder Vinay, Krishnaveer Abhishek Challa, M.Pranay Kumar

Abstract

In the egg industry, the presence of cracks in eggshells is one of the main defects of physical quality. Cracked eggs are very vulnerable to bacterial infections leading to health hazards. It mostly results in significant economic loss in the egg industry. Eggshell crack detection in the egg sorting and packing industry is usually done manually and relies on candling. A bright light is directed through the eggs and the crack defects become more visible and easier to detect. But this operation requires great skill and concentration, and the manual inspection rate is too low and the inspection is subjective. The inspections are subject to eye fatigue and a demand for continuous close attention. As a result, a lot of the cracked eggs are usually missed. Therefore virtual instrument software developing platform Lab VIEW is used fully to achieve automotive detecting and eliminating cracked eggs, thereby, labor intensity is reduced and the measurement accuracy of eggs has improved.
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   4 Directly-Coupled Truncated Wideband Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna with Dual Band Operation
Siddiqui Naushad Ather, Alok Agarwal, P.K. Singhal

Abstract

In multichannel applications a small instantaneous band width is required over a large frequency range. Accordingly, tunable
antenna provides an alternative to a wideband antenna in which an antenna with a small band width is tuned over a large frequency range. In some applications, the system must work within two frequency bands that are far apart. Here dual band antenna with wideband antenna is used. If the antenna operates only at two spot frequencies, then it is known as a dual frequency antenna. In the proposed antenna design dual band operation is achieved by utilizing the directly coupled truncated rectangular micro strip patch antenna with corner cut of 5 mm. In this proposed antenna design two parasitic patches are directly coupled with the feed patch, placed along the non radiating edge of the truncated rectangular feed patch to enhance the band width. The proposed dual frequency antenna gives satisfactory result as compared to a truncated rectangular microstrip antenna of same design specification without gap.
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   5 USB Gadget Drivers for OMAP 4430 Based Pandaboard
Mayur P. Punamiya, Ajit S. Gundale

Abstract

In this paper, we describe Gadget Device Driver implementation mechanism for OMAP 4430 based PandaBoard for open source Linux kernel and for character devices, block devices and network devices available on pandaboard. We outline the basic principles of writing Linux device driver for PandaBoard (OMAP4430 SOC). We employ device driver for USB based Gadgets such as USB mass storage devices, USB Thumb Scanner and USB web camera on multiple Linux distributions like Ubuntu, Android, Angstrom. We load new drivers in Linux Kernel and generate new Binaries of OS which can boot OMAP 4430 based PandaBoard. We also test that employed drivers work with multiple manufacturers of that peripheral making them Class drivers.
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IJCST/32/1/
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   6 Overload Management and Admission Control In Real Time Distributed Database Systems
Rahul Kumar Mishra, Dr. Udai Shanker

Abstract

Current applications, such as Web-based services, electronic commerce, mobile telecommunication systems, etc. are distributed in nature and manipulate time-critical databases. In order to enhance the performance and the availability of such applications, the major issue is to develop efficient protocols that cooperate with the scheduler to manage the overload of the distributed system. In order to help Real-Time Database Management Systems (RTDBS) to maintain data logical consistency while attempting to enhance concurrency execution of transactions. In this paper, we present a protocol that uses a new notion called importance value which is associated with each real-time transaction. Under conditions of overload, this value is used to select the most important transactions with respect to the application transactions in order to pursue their execution ; the other transactions are aborted. Our protocol RCCOS (Replica Concurrency-Control for Overloaded Systems) augments the protocol MIRROR, a concurrency control protocol designed for firm-deadline applications operating on replicated real-timedatabases in order to manage efficiently transactions when the distributed system is overloaded This paper, we also introduce a Transactional Multimode Model to let the application transactions adapt their behavior to the overload consequences which cannot be handled by importance protocols leading to degraded performance.
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   7 A Two-Dimensional IR Algorithm for Position Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks
N. Pushpalatha, Dr.B.Anuradha

Abstract

Many technological developments, in WSN have emerged from military needs and found its way into civil applications. Today, WSNs has become a key technology for different types of smart environments and an intense research effort is currently underway to enable the application of WSNs for a wide range of industrial problems. WSNs are of particular importance when a large number of sensor nodes have to be deployed in Square area. Localization is important when there is an uncertainty of the exact location of some fixed or mobile devices. In the previous paper, the sensing and computation nodes were considered part of the sensor network; in fact, some of the computing may be done in the network itself. This paper proposes an Iterative Routing Algorithm which uses the connectivity of information, the estimated distance information among the sensor nodes and find out the Shortest Path Position Estimation between Source and Destination nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks. In this paper the number of nodes localized, localization accuracy, ranging error and computational cost is presented.
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   8 A Game Theoretic Analysis of Fixed Channel Allocation for Multiple Radios in Multihop Wireless Networks
B. Vamsi Krishna, Sri.P.Nagarjuna

Abstract

Cellular communications become increasingly popular and mobile subscribers are expected to rise heavily. Besides cellular communications. Ad hoc networking is another type of wireless communication technology. Traditional cellular networks and mobile ad hoc networks both have their respective advantages and drawbacks. Traditional cellular networks have mature technology support for reliable performance. However, building and expanding their necessary infrastructure is costly. Multihop wireless networks, on the other hand, are simple to deploy and easily expandable. In wireless communication the wireless medium is shared by the different user through the multiple access techniques. The total available bandwidth is divided permanently into a number of distinct subbands named as channels. Commonly, we refer to the assignment of radio transceivers to these channels as the channel allocation problem. An efficient channel allocation is essential for the design of wireless networks. Various channel allocation methods has been developed in past. static noncooperative game and Nash Equilibrium (NE) channel allocation scheme has developed in past it is not suitable for the multihop wireless networks and the conventional methods were not achieving the good through put and these not satisfying the good session data rates. To overcome the above problems a hybrid approach is to be developed. It is involving both cooperative and noncooperative Schemes and to achieve good data rates of multihop sessions and the throughput of the network is improved.
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   9 Face Invariance Recoginisation: A Buttress Track Engine and Exiguous Pattern Approach Rooted on Image Processing
Bhuvaneshwaran.G, Brindha G, Kadirmathi.K, Sugashini.S, Prabhu.S

Abstract

The major flaw of face recognition system is due to the chromatic variances, which increases the complexity of recognizing an individual’s face. The illumination changes are highly discussed in many researches as a primary drawback of face recognition, whenever the light conditions changes in capturing the facial information, the results also unexpected which makes the system more unpredictable. The researchers agree the fact of grayscale faces are producing better results when compared to Multicolor 2D RGB Faces. Face registration (alignment) is the key of robust face recognition. If we can register face images into frontal views, the recognition task would be much easier. To align a face image into a canonical frontal view, we need to know the pose information of a human head. Pose estimation methods using the proposed model. The next issue that makes even human to get illusion is in understanding the pose of human face, whenever the alignment of face and angle of capturing changes, the accuracy of recognizing the exact human remains unanswered. The complexity of approximating the individual gets additional degradation to the previously discussed illumination variances. Various Humancomputer Interfacing systems and robotic vision based system works on understanding the timely expression of human faces, which are under research for almost a decade. Human to human expression classification itself a difficult task, whenever a person changes his facial expression, it goes unclassifiable and negative. There are various systems which mainly focus on training of human expressions globally, not concerned with individuals. By considering all the above mentioned problem altogether, the proposed system focus on providing global solution for recognizing human faces by combining them to a single headed approach using Buttress Track Engine (BTE) and Exiguous Pattern Algorithm.
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IJCST/32/1/
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   10 Geo-Location Based Information Retrieval System for Mobile Devices in Multiple Modes
Kukkuteswara Rao. Kota, Shirin Bhanu Koduri, Dr. M. Seetha

Abstract

The basic idea behind Geo-Location Based Information Retrieval System for Mobile Devices in Multiple Modes is to provide vibrant location-based service. Increasing the information retrieval accuracy especially in the limited mobile screen has become the important research areas in the development of mobile locationbased services. In this paper, we propose a novel mobile information retrieval system based on GPS and Reverse Geo-Coding, kXML Parsing technique with Web2.0 applications. GPS determines the device’s position by calculating the difference in time signals from different satellites take to reach the receiver. Considering different service requirements, this paper firstly proposes multiple information retrieval modes as Fuzzy Constraint Keywords based Searching Mode, Location-based Geo-Map Browsing Mode, 3-D Tag-Cloud based Collaborative Sharing Mode, which can enable the user to choose suitable retrieval mode and find the useful entity information quickly. The basic approach for implementing location-based services is obtaining location data for a devicebased application that uses it directly. The primary service provided by this system is, it provides the location information such as latitude and longitudes values along with relative location name, city and country information.
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IJCST/32/1/
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   11 Marker Controlled Image Segmentation for Detecting Adjacent Objects Based on Watershed Transform
Dibyendu Ghoshal, Pinaki Pratim Acharjya

Abstract

With the rapid development of computer technology its uses are also increasing in different fields of life. In the last decade image processing is immerged as one of the major area of research. The image segmentation is one of the important fields of image processing and computer vision. Image segmentation deals with segregating the different objects or regions of an image. Segmentation accuracy determines the success or failure of computerized analysis procedure. Segmentation using watershed transformation is a process for analyzing a gray scale image. Adjacency of object is a great issue in analyzing such images. This paper presents a robust procedure for detecting adjacency of hard piece of earth’s surface based on marker controlled watershed algorithm. Experimental results presented in this paper are obtained by using MATLAB. Sequences of commands can be saved in a text file, typically using the MATLAB Editor.
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   12 A Model for Small Scale Website Development
Binayak Panda, Pradeepta Kumar Panigrahi

Abstract

Web Engineering is one of the emerging areas in today’s world. It has got some similarity with Software Engineering. Web applications are having huge demand in today’s world. A dedicated website is having high impact on organization performance. Web applications can be categorized in to two categories. One is large scale web applications for Large Scale Organizations and another is small scale web application for Small Scale Organizations. This paper proposes a model which can be applied for the successful development of small scale web applications. Same can be extended in future for proposing a model for the development of large scale Web applications. It can be referred as a model for small scale Web engineering.
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   13 Analyzing the Cohesion and Coupling of State Chart Diagrams using Program Slicing Techniques
Singh Daljeet, Kambow Lavleen

Abstract

The State Chart Diagrams are used for analyzing the dynamic behavior of system. The understandably of State Chart Diagrams are important for the effective and clear communication among developers. In this paper we, propose a cohesion and coupling , as Average Cohesiveness of States (ACOS) and Average number of Similar states (ASSOS), for the evaluation of the understandability of states chart diagrams using program slicing. We had given the new technique of finding the cohesion and coupling of the state chart diagram by building the dependency graph first and then program slicing of the state chart diagrams to get effective results.
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   14 Design and Path Planning of a Mobile Robot
Akash Dutt Dubey, R.B.Mishra, A.K.Jha

Abstract

One of the most challenging parts in designing of a mobile pick and place robot manipulator has been optimal path planning in presence of obstacles. In this paper, the designing of the pick and place task oriented mobile robot manipulator has been designed using VPL RAT arm and then a vision based path planning using artificial neural networks has been proposed which is used by the robot manipulator to reach the destination. The path planning of the robot is controlled by a camera which is mounted in the environment to detect the obstacles in the path and uses the neural network to decide the optimum path for the mobile robot to reach the destination.
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   15 Dynamic Implementation of Blocking Malicious Users in Anonymous Networks
Felix Arokya Jose, P.M.Durai Raj Vincent, N.Senthil Kumar

Abstract

There has become a practice to permit the users to walkthrough the Internet services secretly by yielding the serious of routersto conceal the client’s IP address from the server. This kind anonymity had lead to cause serious damage to the comprehensivesites and defame their websites popularity. Even though many scrutiny measures have enabled and website administrators havebeen constantly picking the IP address of anonymous users but still it is not practical to hinder their malicious activities as they take through various anonymous networks. In a consequence, the administrator tends to block all known exit nodes of suspicious networks, rejecting their access and mark them anonymous. To overcome this issue, we propose Nymble, where it can block malicious users and further it not allows any such activity to leverage the system. As a whole, the privacy of black listed users is maintained and provides abundant support for further level of investigation.
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   16 Intelligent Transportation System using Cloud Computing
G.Srinivasa Rao, Ch.Krishna Prasad

Abstract

Intelligent Transportation system for agent or multi agent systems have evolved and diversified rapidly and emerging as one of the powerful technologies for the development of large scale distributed systems to deal with the uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Parallel control and management have been proposed as a new mechanism for conducting operations of complex systems, especially those that involved complexity issues of both engineering and social dimensions, such as transportation systems. However, multi agent systems have yet to achieve widespread use for controlling traffic management systems. Since the introduction of modern control approaches, especially hierarchical control methods for urban traffic management problems, traditional control approaches based on functional decomposition have prevailed in both theoretical studies and practical applications
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   17 Implementation of a Scalable μC/OS-II Based Multitasking Monitoring System
CH. S. L. Prasanna, M. Venkateswara Rao

Abstract

Currently embedded monitoring devices have been widely used in many sectors especially in industrial area. However a large number of devices may not have a real time environment. This paper describes an embedded monitoring system based on μC/OS II RTOS operating system using ARM7. It deals with the porting of Micro C/OS-II kernel in ARM powered microcontroller for the implementation of multitasking and time scheduling. Here a real time kernel is the software that manages the time of a micro controller to ensure that all time critical events are processed as efficiently as possible. Different interface modules of ARM7 microcontroller like UART, ADC, LCD are used and data acquired from these interfaces is tested using μC/OS-II based real time operating system. This paper acts as a gateway to implement RTOS for high end applications.
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   18 A Performance Analysis of Different Tecnhiques for Removing Blocking Artifacts
Rubal Jeet, Gurpinder Kaur, Himanshu Monga

Abstract

In different graphical images after compression there are certain problems arises like blocking artifacts, removal of information etc. Blocking artifacts degrades the images by making regular blocks in images. The image will not appear smooth. In this paper we are making performance analysis between different image processing techniques like spatial filtering, and localized. The performance is made on the basis of different parameters like mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, bit error rate and the visibility of image. Out of these techniques localized technique shows good results. It smoothes the artifacts more in comparison to others.
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   19 Pattern Ontology Based Medical Image Retrieval
V.Ramachandran, Dr. E.Srinivasa Reddy

Abstract

This paper is particularly applicable for medical imagery, where gross characterizations on the basis of color and other global properties do not work. An alternative for medical imagery consists of the “scattershot” approach that first extracts a large number of features from an image and then reduces the dimensionality of the feature space by applying a feature selection algorithm such as the Sequential Forward Selection method. Here, we will present our proposed approach for the domain of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) images of the lung. Our empirical evaluation shows that feature extraction based on physicians’ perceptual categories achieves significantly higher retrieval precision than the traditional scattershot approach.
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   20 Maximizing System Lifetime of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks using Hybrid Energy Efficient Distributed Protocol
Bhuvaneshwari Patil, P. Madhuravani

Abstract

The last few years have seen an increased interest in the potential use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in various fields like disaster management, battle field surveillance, and border security surveillance. In query based wireless sensor systems, a user would issue a query and expect a response to be returned within a deadline. Retrieving sensor data such that QoS requirements are satisfied is achallenging problem. Sensornetworks aren’t always homogeneous, theymaybe heterogeneous too.Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks are more complex than homogeneous ones. But the heterogeneous wireless sensornetworks are more suitable for real life applications as compared to the homogeneous counterpart. In this paper, Hybrid Energy Efficient Distributed Protocol (H-HEED) for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network has been proposed to prolong the network lifetime. Simulation result demonstrates that H-HEED achieves longer lifetime.
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   21 Automatic Shortest Path Method of Scheduling Polices for Multi-Hop Wireless Networks
Nagababu Pachhala, Kunapareddy Rajani Devi

Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the delay performance of a multi-hop wireless network in which the routes between source-destination pairs are fixed. We develop a new queue grouping technique and Automatic Shortest Path Analyzer method ASPA to handle the complex correlations of the service process resulting from the multi-hop nature of the flows and their mutual sharing of the wireless medium dynamically. A general set based interference model is assumed that imposes constraints on links that can be served simultaneously at any given time. These interference constraints are used to obtain a fundamental lower bound on the delay performance of any scheduling policy for the system. We introduce shortest Path finder from source to destination. We present a systematic methodology to derive such lower bounds. For a special wireless system, namely the clique, we design a policy that is sample path delay optimal. For the tandem queue network, where the delay optimal policy is known, the expected delay of the optimal policy numerically coincides with the lower bound. The lower bound analysis provides useful insights into the design and analysis of optimal or nearly optimal scheduling policies. We conduct extensive numerical studies to demonstrate that one can design policies whose average delay performance is close to the lower bound computed by the techniques presented in this paper.
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   22 Data Mining Methods for Program Comprehension
Ashutosh Mishra, Vinayak Srivastava

Abstract

Source code comprehension is a very vital task in software engineering and in software maintenance in particularly. The comprehension of the source code is performed by different tools for various purposes. Data mining is one of the important and versatile methods in this context. There are lots of data mining methods and different tools have been used in source code comprehension in particular. We present in this paper a methodology to extract knowledge using data mining methods which would be very much useful for software maintenance. The data mining methods for Clustering, Classification and Association rules have been deployed for source code comprehension. Our approach is holistic in nature that covers many aspects required for software maintenance whereas approaches by other researchers cover a partial aspect in this context.
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   23 Security step in web service architecture
B.Aruna, E.Sridevi, Sowjanya

Abstract

The purpose of the security architecture is to bring focus to the key areas of concern for the enterprise, Since security is a system property it can be difficult for Enterprise Security groups to separate the disparate concerns that exist at different system layers and to understand their role in the system as a whole. This paper provides a gathering framework for understanding design and process considerations; to actions toward improving enterprise security. The security policy describes both what is allowed and not allowed in the system. Security standards should be prescriptive guidance for applications and operating systems. Security in the enterprise needs architecture and design advocates. Security policy and standards are not end goals. The security architecture must define reusable security services that allow developers to not to put end for security experts yet still build a secure system. This document describes a proposed strategy for security within a Web service environment. It defines a Web service security models that defines the working system of several popular security technologies.
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   24 Efficient Detect File Watcher for Data Leakage
Doolla Sridhar, Kunapareddy Rajani Devi

Abstract

We study the following problem: A data distributor has given sensitive data to a set of supposedly trusted agents (third parties). Some of the data are leaked and found in an unauthorized place (e.g., on the web or somebody’s laptop). The distributor must assess the likelihood that the leaked data came from one or more agents, as opposed to having been independently gathered by other means. We propose File Watcher technique for data lekage and follows data allocation strategies (across the agents) that improve the probability of identifying leakages. The proposed technique should be able to work with common protocols and technologies These methods do not rely on alterations of the released data (e.g., watermarks). In some cases, we can also inject “realistic but fake” data records to further improve our chances of detecting leakageand identifying the guilty party.
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   25 Preventing IP-Spoofing by Inter Domain Packet Filter
Sambhaji Sarode, Mahesh Shinde, Sonam Katariya, Ravindra Rajole

Abstract

In computer network, IP spoofing remains popular method in Distributed Denial of service attack. Several prevention schemes have been developed to detect forget source IP addresses. By employing IP spoofing Hacker put burden on the destination network for policing attack packets. The packet filtering technique based on BGP update, but not all time this updating is correct in the internet. In this paper we introduce Inter-domain packet filter architecture which can minimize the level of IP spoofing on the internet. The important point of this technique, it doesn’t require global routing information. This packet filtering mechanism based on implicit information. The IDPF are implemented on the network border routers and build from information gathered from BGP routers and IDPF doesn’t discard packet with valid source address. Here we show that even with fragmentary implementation of the IDPFs on the Internet we can reduce the spoofing capacity of attackers and they can help in localize the source of an attack packet to a fewer number of candidate networks.
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   26 Study of Security Concerns in Cloud Computing
Satinder Singh

Abstract

From the past few years, cloud computing is one of the fastest growing segment in I.T industry. Cloud computing is sharing of resources on large scale which is cost effective and location independent. Resources in cloud computing can be installed by seller and used by client. In this paper, I will study the security concerns in cloud computing, which needs to be resolve. These security issues have greater impact on the cloud computing. I would also discuss services provided by cloud computing, cloud
computing deployment and delivery model etc.
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   27 Prediction of Best Web Services Based on QoS Values for Active Users
Anamikca.J, Saranya.S, Sri Ramya.M.D, Kowsigan.M

Abstract

A Web service is a method of communication between two electronic devices over the web (internet). They are published, found, and used through the Web. Web services are application components which communicate using open protocols and they are self-contained and self-describing. They can be discovered using UDDI. Based on the QoS performance of Web services, various approaches have been proposed for Web service selection which enables optimal Web service to be identified from a set of functionally similar or equivalent Web services. As the optimal web service selection takes long time to predict , we are moving to the real time web service selection. Optimal QoS is obtained by requesting real time web services which in turn displays the response that includes request time, response time, pic chart of service provided by web services. This concept is implemented in share market.
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   28 Feature Extraction and Pairing of G-Band Chromosome Images using K-Nearest Neighbour Classifier
S.Janani, R.Nandakumar, M.Nirmala

Abstract

The application of K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN’s) to automatic analysis of chromosome images is investigated in this paper. The automatic classification of chromosome is an difficult task because it appears distorted, overlapped, and their images are usually blurred with undefined edges and low level of detail. This paper introduces standard deviation feature obtained from wavelet transform of the image as a criterion to decompose groups of chromosome. The band profile of G-band chromosomes are used as the discriminate feature.
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   29 Comparative Analysis of Process Models in Software Engineering
Aditya Dev Mishra, Dipesh Das

Abstract

Software systems pass through a series of passages that account for their inception, initial development, productive operation, upkeep, and retirement from one generation to another. Software Process Improvement (SPI) is a systematic approach to improve the software development organization’s ability to deliver quality software within time and budget constraints. The aim of this paper is to develop a model which would be useful in practice for software development companies. The proposed model is a generic model which is beneficial for a small firm as well as a large firm. This proposed model does not focus only on quality assurance but also the culture of the organization. It describes how this model can be used to guide software organizations in process improvement, and the various assessment and evaluation methods.
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   30 Peer-Peer File Sharing System on Mobile Phones
M.R. Dhage, Swanand Pethe, Saket Rathi, Anuja Shah

Abstract

In recent years, Peer-Peer (P2P) systems have been widely used in the Internet for many applications. The basic, foremost and useful application of file sharing is a popular one and is utilized by millions of users. On the other hand, Mobile phones have speedily evolved from simple voice communication devices into powerful devices able to handle a variety of additional services. Hence, it seems logical and useful to club together both: P2P file sharing application and powerful mobile phones; to present a utility unique in its own kind. People could exchange files they desire just while passing each other. In this paper, we present details of implementing Peer-Peer file sharing system for mobile phones by using the Bluetooth technology.
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   31 Optimization for Keyword-Based Queries by using Web Search Engine
Nripendra Narayan Das, Monika Gupta

Abstract

Internet search engines have popularized the keyword based search technique. While traditional database management systems offer powerful query languages, they do not allow keyword-based search. What type of keyword which has to be entered for maximum result. How search engine work for processing that query.
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   32 A Comparative Study of Salt-and-Pepper Noise Reduction
M. Mohana Dhas, Dr. G. Suganthi, N.Suresh Singh

Abstract

Removing noise from the original image is still a challenging research in image processing. This paper proposes five types of filters as Standard Median Filter(SMF), Rank-order based Adaptive Mean Filter(RAMF), Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Switching Median Filter(NAFSMF), and Combining NAFSM Filter and AKM(NAFSM-AKM) techniques based on statistical methods for the removal of Salt and Pepper noise. The quality of the enhanced images is measured by the statistical quantity measures: Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), and Mean Square Error (MSE).
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   33 A Cross Layer approach for Performance Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks using Cooperative Diversity
Piyush Charan, Rajeev Paulus, Mukesh Kumar, Arvind Kumar Jaiswal

Abstract

The performance of Wireless Mesh Networks is not optimal by using the conventional layered protocols (TCP-IP). Then the method of optimization at different layers of the protocol stack (TCP-IP) can help to achieve optimal network performance. This method usually results in a clean-slate protocol architecture that is different from the protocol architecture of WMNs. Such a difference actually demonstrates the need for a cross-layer design. Specific features pertaining to WMNs also show the need for cross-layer optimization across different protocol layers. In this paper, the need for cross layer design in WMNs is discussed first. Later in this paper we will discuss the different cross layer optimization schemes and we will compare the performance metrics such as throughput, end-to-end delay and PDR(packet delivery ratio) in multihop wireless sensor networks with and without user cooperative diversity.
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   34 Performance Comparison of Image Classification using KFCG with Assorted Pixel Window Sizes in RGB and LUV Color Spaces
Dr. H. B. Kekre, Dr. Sudeep D. Thepade, Varun K. Banura, Aanchal Bhatia

Abstract

The theme of the work presented in the paper is Vector Quantization (VQ) based image classification using Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation (KFCG) algorithm for variable size pixel windows in RGB and LUV color spaces. Here different codebooks of size 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 and 512 generated using KFCG for pixel windows of size 1×2, 1×3, 2×1, 2×2, 3×1 and 3×3 are considered as feature vectors and are used in image classification. These feature vectors are calculated for RGB and LUV color spaces. The proposed techniques of content based image classification are tested on a general image database of 1000 images consisting of 11 different categories. The proposed image classification methods give higher success rate with pixel windows of smaller size indicating that increase in size of pixel window leads to over fitting of the image classifier. Also when the proposed KFCG based image retrieval techniques were compared in RGB and LUV color spaces, it was observed that the performance in LUV color space was ameliorated. Among all the proposed techniques, codebook of size 32 with pixel window size 1×3 in LUV color space gives the best performance.
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   35 Analysis of Link Breakage Prediction in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Simmy Dhiman, Dr. Sona Malhotra

Abstract

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile devices forming a communication network without any preexisting infrastructure. Each mobile node moves in an arbitrary manner due to dynamic topology in MANETs. Due to this dynamic topology, routes are subjected to frequent breakage. This problem causes significant throughput degradation. In this paper, a link breakage prediction algorithm is added to the Dynamic Source Routing Protocol. In the link breakage prediction, the availability of link is evaluated using signal power strength from the received packets and if the link is soon to be broken, then a warning is issued to the source node of the packet. The source node can perform a pro-active route rebuild to avoid the disconnection due to link failure.
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   36 Virtual Biology Lab :Interactive Frog Dissection
Vatsala Bani, Abha Choubey

Abstract

A virtual biology lab is a computer simulation of actual biology lab. In a biology lab, many experiments are performed. Dissection is one of the experiments performed in a biology lab. Dissection is the procedure by which internal organs of an organism are studied. In this work, 3D Virtual dissection software of frog has been developed for learners of biology using action script language. Action script has a java like syntax & is easier for creating visually engaging animations and interactive projects. The main objectives are to make the software more realistic and more interactive. With the use of 3D frog dissection images, dissection has been made more realistic and with the help of virtual dissection tools it has been made more interactive. A variety of animation techniques have been embedded in the virtual learning environment. Feedback of students has been taken and result has been evaluated. Evaluation data indicates an overall positive reaction by students and teachers towards “Virtual Lab: Interactive Frog Dissection” software.
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   37 A Study on Multibiometric Fusion Approaches
Sangeetha.S, Radha.N.

Abstract

The biometric system is one such that can provide accurate and reliable scheme for person verification. The main aim of biometric based security system is to make sure that rendered service is accessed only by valid user. The concept of multimodel biometrics is gaining importance to realise reliable, accurate and robust authentication systems. In multimodal biometrics, information fusion can be done at various levels: sensor level, feature level, match-score level, and rank level and decision level. This paper surveys the issues of fusion at different levels and recent researches addressing these issues. Furthermore, there are several fusion rules available to combine biometric traits at different levels of fusion.
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   38 Importance of E-Governance in India and Challenges to Implement
Adarsh Suryakant Patel, Bhrantav Nishendubhai Vora, Pravinkumar Rameshbhai Patel

Abstract

E-governance means computerization of current government procedures. Government has started implementation of the electronic governance for each and every department to provide government documents to the citizens very much easily and on the fly. But computerization may require staff members should be well educated of computer and should be aware of latest technology, again there are some challenges for the implementing new technology. Our paper is divided into two sections, in section I, we would like to discuss importance of E-governance in India and section II, challenges for the implementation of the E-governance project India.
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   39 Factors Leading to Integration Failures in Global Feature-Oriented Development: An Empirical Analysis
E.Geetha Rani, CH.Suguna Latha, D.Anusha, M.Satya Sukumar, T.Swathi

Abstract

Feature-driven software development is a novel approach that has grown in popularity over the past decade. Researchers and practitioners alike have argued that numerous benefits could be garnered from adopting a feature-driven development approach. However, those persuasive arguments have not been matched with supporting empirical evidence. Moreover, developing software systems around features involves new technical and organizational elements that could have significant implications for outcomes such as software quality. This paper presents an empirical analysis of a large-scale project that implemented 1195 features in a software system. We examined the impact that technical attributes of product features, attributes of the feature teams and cross feature interactions have on software integration failures. Our results show that technical factors such as the nature of component dependencies and organizational factors such as the geographic dispersion of the feature teams and the role of the feature owners had complementary impact suggesting their independent and important role in terms of software quality. Furthermore, our analyses revealed that cross-feature interactions, measured as the number of architectural dependencies between two product features, are a major driver of integration failures. The research and practical implications of our results are discussed.
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   40 A Survey on Image De-noising using Threshold Discrete Wavelets
Tajinder Singh, Rajeev Bedi

Abstract

This paper represents an outline of wavelets and its use in Image De-noising. The wavelets can be used for the removal of noise from digital images. Wavelets are functions that assure certain mathematical necessities and are used in place of data or other functions. Wavelet hypothesis represents possessions by breaking them down into many consistent component pieces, similar to pieces of jig-saw puzzle, when the pieces are scaled and translated wavelets, this breaking down process is wavelet decomposition or wavelet transform. This paper also describes the advantages of wavelets over Fourier Transformation and instead, wavelet transforms have an infinite set of possible basis functions which can be used for de-noising the digitized images.
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   41 Logical Data Warehouse Design using Distributed Schema Architecture
Bikramjit Pal, Laxmi Rout, Priyadarshani Shah, Dr. Mallika De

Abstract

Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organization and when used properly can assist in intelligent decision making that can significantly improve the functioning of an organization. Data Warehousing is a recent technology that allows information to be easily and efficiently accessed for decision-making activities by collecting data from many operational, legacy and possibly heterogeneous data sources. This paper provides an overview of data warehousing and OLAP technologies, with an emphasis on their new requirements. The problem arise in modeling data warehouse structure is that establishing an adequate representation of dimensions in order to facilitate and to control the analysis operations. There is a need to apprehend complex structures interconnecting dimensions and facts in variousways. In this paper, we propose a model through which dimensions at different levels can be shared between different facts and various relationships between these facts can be described. Using this model, we then define the notion of well-formed warehouse structures.
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   42 Sharing Characters/Code Words Through Video Among the Different Home Networks using a Middleware
Suchithra M, Divahar S

Abstract

Cloud computing allows accessing resources across Internet transparently: requiring no expertise in or Control over the underlying infrastructure. There is an Increasing interest in sharing data files securely with Military agencies and other corporate. Video data hiding is still an important research topic due to the design complexities involved. A new video data hiding method that makes use of erasure correction capability of repeat accumulates codes and superiority of forbidden zone data hiding. Selective embedding is utilized in the proposed method to determine host signal samples suitable for data hiding. This method also containsa temporal synchronization scheme in order to withstand frame drop and insert attacks.
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   43 MANET: Vulnerabilities, Attacks, Solutions
Simmy Dhiman, Dr. Sona Malhotra

Abstract

A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate without any fixed or pre-existing infrastructure. MANET poses a number of challenges like open peer-to-peer network architecture, shared wireless medium, stringent resource consumption etc. The provision of security services in MANET faces a set of these challenges. In this paper, we discuss security issues, vulnerabilities, attacks and solutions in MANETs.
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   44 A Novel Algorithm for Clustering Categorical Data
T.Jyothirmayi, G.L.Aruna Kumari

Abstract

The clustering problem has been deemed an important issue in the data mining, statistical pattern recognition, machine learning, and information retrieval because of its use in a wide range of applications. There are some existing clustering methods that handle objects either described only by numerical attributes such as K- means, or only by categorical ones such as K-mode. This is done by computing a distance measure that handles the considered type of attributes. But the real world data is a combination of both types of attributes. In this paper an efficient algorithm for clustering categorical data is proposed. The algorithm proceeds with calculating the similarity matrix for the data set. Neighbor matrix is deduced from the similarity matrix. Initially the clusters are formed based on the neighbor matrix and clusters are merged until a threshold is met. The main advantage of this algorithm is the number of clusters need not be specified as input.
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   45 Cloud Computing: Step Forward of Internet Computing
Harshi Solanki, Deepa Mahra

Abstract

The term cloud computing refers to the delivery of scalable IT resources over the Internet, as opposed to hosting and operating those resources locally, such as on a college or university network. Those resources can include applications and services, as well as the infrastructure on which they operate. By deploying IT infrastructure and services over the network, an organization can purchase these resources on an as-needed basis and avoid the capital costs of software and hardware. With cloud computing, IT capacity can be adjusted quickly and easily to accommodate changes in demand. While remotely hosted, managed serviceshave long been a part of the IT landscape, a heightened interest in cloud computing is being fueled by ubiquitous networks, maturing standards, the rise of hardware and software virtualization, and the push to make IT costs variable and transparent.
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